Saturday, May 23, 2020

Advantages of Amazon.com being the first mover in E-commerce.

E-commerce (electronic-commerce) refers to business over the Internet. With the growth of commerce on the Internet and the Web, e-commerce often refers to purchases from online stores on the Web, otherwise knows as e-commerce Web sites. The e-commerce marketplace is intensely and savagely competitive. Mellahi and Johnson (2000) noted that major sustainable competitive advantages are almost non-existent. That means that firms market advantage such as economies of scale are no longer enough to make a firm secure in the e-commerce marketplace. According to McCrohan (2003), the e-commerce market has raised the level of market dynamics such that firms face constant challenges, disequilibrium and change. This also means that firms must adapt†¦show more content†¦Thus, waiting and watching the first mover in order to free ride on the technology or other innovations translate into automatically losing market share. Being first to market and continuous innovation have enabled Amazon to achieve a highly recognizable and trusted brand name (Economist, 2000). This is not surprising given the fact that the company spends approximately 40 per cent of its revenue on brand building due to its firm belief that customers first and foremost look for trusted brands when they deal online (Margolis, 1999). In addition, Amazon.com is customer centric. Jeff Bezos, founder and manager of Amazon, reported that Amazons vision is that we want to be the worlds most customer-centric company, that we focus increasingly on trying to get the customer experience right. Within that, we want to build a place where people can come and discover anything they might want to buy online (Business Week, 1999). The company marketing expenses increased threefold between 1998 and 1999. Amazon.com is seeking to capitalize on its brand and diversify its business to become the best place to buy, find and discover any product or servic e online. Indeed, the company claims that its online diversification strategy into other product categoryShow MoreRelatedAmazon. History and Background1511 Words   |  7 Pagess largest non-travel e-commerce business. Once the website was established as a bookseller, it was a logical step into the sale of other entertainment products, such as music and films, and also into the hardware used to deliver home entertainment. Amazon was a pioneer in the use of software that monitors each online customer s preferences, enabling the company to suggest other products that may be of interest to the individual, either on their personalized web page or via e-mail. A book customerRead MoreThinking Outside the Covers of a Book: The Rise and the Fall of Amazon vs. Borders in the Online World1664 Words   |  7 PagesThe demise of Borders, once the most viable rival to the behemoth book chain Barnes Noble could be read as a symptom of this cultural phenomenon. However, another of Barnes Nobles rivals, that of Amazon.com is thriving. Amazon.com introduced a new model of profitability for online retailers, first beginning with books and then branching out into digital books and other forms of goods and services. By some book enthusiasts, Borders was much beloved. Though it was a chain, with hundreds of locationsRead MoreAmazons Competitive Analysis1296 Words   |  6 Pagescompetition. Due to the shift of focus for Amazon, it has become the Earths biggest anything store. Its competitors have expanded from just online book retailers Barnes and Nobles and Borders to top audio retailers CDNOW.com and online auction house e-bay.com. Amazon has an overall lead of 40% market share against the other online retail firms. Their international business has more than doubled over the past 2 years Amazons primary value chain includes purchasing/sourcing, marketing, distributionRead MoreSeminar Paper on Strategies to Achieve Market Leadership: the Example of Amazon13422 Words   |  54 Pagesin Electronic Commerce ................ 1 2.1 Value Chains and Actors in EC............................................................. 1 2.2 Principles for Success in Electronic Commerce.................................... 3 2.3 Porter’s Branch Structure Analysis applied to EC Markets ................... 4 2.4 Context Factors and Value Creation Potentials in EC Markets ............. 8 2.5 First Mover Advantage and the Role of the Pioneer ............................. 9 3 Amazon.com – The Road toRead MoreThe Globalization of Amazon Essay4890 Words   |  20 PagesGlobalization of Amazon.com Zheng, Li # 5263512 Yitong, Fu # 5263587 Xuanyu, Hou # 5263629 Gupta, Radheshyam # 5072517 Jiagen, Hao # 5287701 Hang, Xu # 5129804 MBAB 5P22 Section 01 April 1, 2013 * Introduction Amazon.com, Inc. was founded by Jeff Bezos out of his own garage in July 1994 under the name of Cadabra. It went online in as Amazon.com in 1995. Since that time it has never looked back and is now the worlds largest  online retailer. It  is an American  multinational  electronicRead MoreStrategic Development (Longitudinal) - Amazon4398 Words   |  18 Pagesï » ¿ A LONGITUDINAL STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF AMAZON.COM RECENT PAST OF AMAZON.COM Jeff Bezos in Seattle, USA, founded Amazon.com in 1994 (Bloomberg Businessweek, 2012). Prior to Amazon.com, Bezos was senior vice president for D.E Shaw (a Wall Street investment bank) where his major role was to find potential Internet companies to invest in. As soon as he quit his job, he decided to move to Seattle, where he created an online platform, accessible to customersRead MoreAmazon Strategic Hrm3095 Words   |  13 Pages........................................................................................... 3 3. Industry Analysis............................................................................................................................ 4 3.1 E-commerce Industry Analysis ................................................................................................. 4 3.2 Book Retailing Industry ..................................................................................................Read MoreBusiness Strategy of Amazon: A Summary1794 Words à ‚  |  8 Pages|Bangalore Management Academy | |Business Strategy – Case Study 2 | |Amazon.Com | Submitted to: Mr. Nirmaalya.B.Biswas Dr. Amrita Saxena Submitted by: Jainie Jose BLR0906032007 Clareena Shafali Serrao BLR0906032032 Prashant AdhangleRead MoreEssay on Amazon Case Analysis4440 Words   |  18 PagesAmazon.com Case Analysis Internal External Matrix, Matrix Analysis and TOWS Summary, and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix Executive Summary This case analysis serves the purpose to provide an analytical framework to evaluate Amazon.com from an internal and external perspective, and to provide strategic direction based upon the internal and external evaluation. The case will begin with an introduction to Amazon.com. Introduction/Background Jeffrey Bezos, formerly a senior viceRead MorePest Analysis3657 Words   |  15 PagesTransdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.ro/etc Vol. 15, Issue 1/2012 252-258 E-Commerce across United States of America: Amazon.com Andreea Nicoleta DONICI, PhD Student, Andreea MAHA, PhD Student, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, ROMANIA doniciandreea@gmail.com andreea.maha@gmail.com Ion IGNAT, Liviu-George MAHA Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, ROMANIA ignation@uaic.ro mlg@uaic.ro Abstract: Amazon.com has been during the time one of the most important leading force in ecommerce

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

5 Study Secrets to Ace Your Exams

Most students hate tests. They hate the feeling of trying to remember the answer to a question, worrying that they focused on the wrong material, and waiting to receive their results. Whether you learn at a traditional school or study from the comfort of your own home, chances are you’ll have to sit through many test-taking experiences. But there are a few tricks you can learn now to avoid the worry before you’re in the heat of the moment. Give these five proven study tips a try and see how much better you feel during your next exam. 1. Survey your textbook or workbook before you read. Take a couple of minutes to find the glossary, index, study questions and other important information. Then, when you sit down to study, you’ll know where to find the answers you are looking for. Make sure you read any study questions before you read the chapter. These questions let you know what you can probably expect in any upcoming tests, papers or projects. 2. Attack your textbook with sticky notes. As you read, summarize (write down the main points in just a few sentences) each section of the chapter on a post-it note. After you have read the entire chapter and summarized each section, go back and review the post-it notes. Reading the post-it notes is an easy and efficient way to review information and, because each note is already in the section it summarizes, you can easily find the information you need. 3. Use a graphic organizer to take notes when you read. A graphic organizer is a form you can use to organize information. As you read, fill out the form with important information. Then, use your graphic organizer to help you study for the test. Try using the Cornell notes worksheet. Not only does this organizer let you record important terms, ideas, notes and summaries, it also lets you quiz yourself on that information by folding the answers upside down. 4. Make your own practice test. After you finish reading, pretend you are a professor who is writing a test for the chapter. Review the material you just read and make up your own practice test. Include all vocabulary words, study questions (they’re usually at the beginning or end of the chapter), and highlighted words you can find, as well as any other information you think is important. Take the test you’ve created to see if you remember the information. If not, go back and study some more. 5. Create visual flashcards. Flashcards aren’t just for primary students. Many college students find them useful as well. Before you take a test, make flashcards that will help you remember important terms, people, places and dates. Use one 3-by-5-inch index for each term. On the front of the card, write down the term or question you need to answer and draw a picture that will help you remember it. This will help ensure that you grasp the study material as you’ll find that it’s almost impossible to sketch something you don’t really understand. On the back of the card write down the definition of the term or the answer to the question. Review these cards and quiz yourself before the actual test.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly Free Essays

string(70) " the Methodist congregations to spread their radical political ideas\." The eighteenth century is commonly viewed by historians as a period of decline for the Anglican establishment which suffered increasing losses in its authority over local parishes and failing to respond adequately to the changing society of the early industrial age and challenges over the nature of religion and its role in the lives of individuals. In the 1740s, Samuel Wesley and his sons began to preach outside the confines of the Church, advocating a more voluntary approach to religious devotion and encouraging increased involvement of laymen in the work of the parish. Methodism was effectively born out of societies set up to integrate the church into the community, but in carrying voluntarism to its logical conclusion, argues Gilbert, such a movement would naturally come into conflict with the establishment by offering an alternative to the prescribed methods of religious practise and undermining the ministerial authority and organising machinery of the Church. We will write a custom essay sample on Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although the Wesley family were conservative Tories and John Wesley, who was to become the leading Methodist figure, always expressed a keen desire to remain within Anglicanism, he told a inaugural conference in 1744 that Methodism would either leave the whole church or â€Å"be thrust out of it† Whether the Methodists were in essence a radical or conservative group was at the time, and remains a much debated topic. In an essay on Methodism, Dissent and Political Stability2, Gilbert argues that it was in fact both. Methodism was a means of taking a stand against prescribed religion and the status quo of social organisation through the withdrawal of status respect and assertion of freedom. Methodism was in effect a radical means of political and social protest in an era of new ideas and social instability, epitomised abroad by the violent revolutions in France, and yet the movement was unobtrusive in its politics and the moderate nature of this radicalism had a stabilising effect on society, acting as a â€Å"safety valve† that contained tension and helped avoid the polarisation of opinions. Looking at the religious history of other European nations, Methodism is quite the anomaly, a dissenting movement, cast out of the Anglican Church that eventually serves to prop up the traditional order. Weakness in the Anglican establishment dated back to the reformation, which had been a break away from authority from Rome, but had also meant an increase in secular authority over the ecclesiastical, through the judicial courts, some tithe taxes and rights of patronage. Though the clerical influence in national politics and in local parishes was still strong, it was no longer as an independent body, but in conjunction with secular authorities. Loss of influence in the upper echelons of power, with monarchs of differing faith on the throne and the abbots losing their majority in the Lords was coupled with strain on authority in the parishes through lack of adequate funding or dynamism. The demographic boom of the late eighteenth century and the breakdown of the traditional parish based organisation of ancien regime society with the increase in manufacturing towns left many outside the network of pastoral oversight, as Ward notes, this and toleration laws paved the way for eager dissenters to exert influence3. However, the first half of the century is more commonly characterised by a mood of religious apathy. Numbers attending Anglican services were declining, but Gilbert argues, Protestant dissent was also in a state of atrophy in 1740. Looking at statistics, this could be seen as a dramatic turning point in the history of religious dissent, but it must be remembered that after new toleration acts were passed it became necessary for all groups to register, nevertheless, this was a period when old dissenting movements were being surpassed by the new evangelicals, who could serve the community where the Anglican church could no longer cope. Naturally there was a certain discontinuity of dissent, with different traditions declining and growing in different patterns across the country. The chapel movement was one that responded to local needs, in some areas lay societies along evangelical lines were even encouraged by the local clergy, but the most prominent groups inevitably sprang up where the church was least effective and inevitably would become a source of conflict with the establishment. The evangelical revival of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was above all a popular movement, and with no central driving force, it is difficult to define the limits of the movement. Dissenters within the orthodoxy of the Church had existed before, but a newfound zeal, enthusiastic conversion methods and a more coherent programme now developed into a single, if multiform, religious phenomenon. Although there were divisions between Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists and Independents, they were not fundamental. All relied on lay preachers and the centrality of village communities to spread their message of voluntary piety, based around the family and spiritual equality, whereby all could receive salvation through faith and good works. Methodism can perhaps be characterised by its system of connexion networks that linked dissenting groups across the country. Wesley had hoped to unite his movement through the Anglican ministers and in 1764 had sent fifty letters appealing for a unity of purpose, but receiving only three replies, realised he would have to unite and organise his followers outside the clergy. The strength of the movement however, was not in a system of alliances, but its dynamism. Methodism was a movement that spread rapidly through expansionist missionary societies, and Wesley’s followers breached the movement further away from the church by demanding that its preachers should be able to give communion. A 1793 conference voted that members of a society who were unanimous in their desire to receive the sacrament from their preacher might do so. Ward questions whether this was a case of the preachers following the flock, or the scheming of radical ministers to use the Methodist congregations to spread their radical political ideas. You read "Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly" in category "Papers" Samuel Bradburn was one such minister who introduced ideas of unbounded liberty and the Rights of Man into his sermons, but he shunned Kilham, an even more defiant political Methodist, casting doubt on any suggestion of a central political aim. In the 1790s, social tensions were reaching boiling point. Evangelical societies attracted dissenters at all social levels, even at court, where many independent politicians, clergymen and intellectuals deserted George III and headed a campaign as a Unitarian group for reforms to free trade and end slavery, believing in free enquiry and social progress. Among the lower social orders there was a backlash against the increasing number of dissenters and riots broke out, prompted by food shortages but also calling for â€Å"Church and King† and were largely unhindered by the clergy and magistrates of the old order. It is important to remember that while the growth of evangelical movements was significant, it still only affected a small proportion of the population, with many remaining ambivalent towards new ideals of piety and man others choosing to remain firmly within the Anglican fold. For some, traditional means of expressing discontent were still favoured. Davidoff sees the Evangelical movement as a largely middle class phenomenon. This was a rapidly expanding social group that needed to form their identity. He argues that a sense of religious belonging was provided by the various evangelical movements became a part of middle class culture and the success of the movement can be credited to its ability to fill this need. Traditional church practise did not involve participation from the lay community, and while the middle classes were a group with little political power, there role was gradually becoming more like that of the traditional gentry, as Lords devolved their duties in a practise of stewardship. Dissenting evangelical groups formed a basis of a middle class community as well as a middle class culture. The religious focus is undeniably meritocratic in tone; that salvation was open to all through their own piety. Davidoff also believes that there was a notion that this piety could give individuals strength to bare hostility from others, as the new middle classes may well have faced in the years of hardship and social tension at the end of the eighteenth century. The central importance of the family crossed denominations, another middle class value. The ideal was of the home as a moral haven from the amoral world of the business market. This haven was created by women, who were viewed as naturally more pious than men. The concepts of masculine and feminine were being transposed into more distinct social roles, each with their own responsibilities. Men were the material providers of the family and women’s role was to create a moral home for her husband and children, domestic seclusion was a moral ideal and some serious evangelicals even shunned the pleasures of sport and the theatre in favour of this domesticity. Women did have increased prominence in church life, in some denominations they could even be ministers, but overall, the new movements were still male dominated. In some areas women may even have lost influence, where before they could have performed duties of clerks where necessary, roles were now more often formalised into those that were acceptable for women and those that were not. The evangelical community gave the middle class a forum to profess their beliefs and help to form their own culture and community. Dissenting groups were most prominent in new manufacturing towns and much of their establishment can be seen as benefiting the middle classes. They set up church schools and welfare societies, seeing their community almost s an extension of their family that need to be provided for. Schools were central to the evangelical movement, supporting the middle class love of reading and reflection as alternative entertainments. Indeed it was often the case that the school came before the chapel, as was the case in Bollington, a manufacturing town in the Northwest. Although initially non-denominational, the school soon became dominated by the Methodists. But importantly, the erection of such public buildings was not decided on by the preachers, but went before an appeal to the town, in tune with democratic principals. The practise of the Sunday school was an important means of gaining support among the locals, as many sent their children to work in factories at an early age and this would still give them a chance to learn to read. The work of evangelicals within their communities through charity and education may have stunted working class resentment, but Davidoff asserts that they still tended to stay away from Church. Gilberts sees the evangelicals as targeting the lower echelons of society, corroding the image of the lower orders as simple minded and maybe thus giving cause for concern to the ruling classes, but it is probable that these are two differing views of what was essentially the same social group, seen as the lower orders by contemporaries, but viewed by some historians, in the pattern of social evolution, as the emerging middle classes. The end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries saw a demographic boom, centred around new manufacturing towns. It was the early years of the industrial age and the changing structure of society had new needs that the state and church could not provide for. Looking abroad for a point of comparison, French society, with its firmly established monarchy and church was thrust into a violent revolution that was to remove both. In England, the less powerful position occupied by the monarchy and church could be seen as perhaps what saved them from a similar fate. Dissenting movements had been allowed to develop that were then to serve as a moderating force. There was much confusion in the late eighteenth century as to Methodists and their significance. The movement grew further and faster than other evangelical societies, and what Smyth called â€Å"Christian godliness without Christian organisation† in 1795 was attacked by others as having too much organisation and followers were subject to too much pastoral oversight, threatening the formation of a radical political force. 5 Indeed, Sidney Pollard and Robert Southerly were of the view that revolution was imminent. With hindsight, historians like Halevy have argued that there was nothing for the state to fear in the rise of Methodism, but contemporary powers would not have been able to see the larger picture of changing society and the development of a middle-class and so the movement may have been forced into its unobtrusive political stance where perhaps more radical beliefs were deep-seated. Jabez Bunting, a radical Methodist figure after the death of Wesley, saw the movement as wide, but not deep. He was relatively apolitical, but was keen to preserve the liberties that Methodism had benefited from in the face of conservative reaction to social tensions and revolution in Europe. But the evangelical revival, viewed with historical hindsight is indeed a political movement, the energies of the chapel communities were a force that resisted to reactionism and later advocated reforms, but after 1850 the dynamism of the movement had dwindled, as the social tensions of the age eased. How to cite Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb Essay Example For Students

Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb Essay Word Count: 5516The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through radiation exposure. We here at Outlaw Labs do not recommend using this file beyond the realm of casual or academic curiosity. ============================================================================ -+ Table of Contents +- I. The History of the A). Development (The Manhattan Project) B). Detonation 1). Hiroshima 2). Nagasaki 3). Byproducts of atomic detonations 4). Blast Zones II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion A). Fission (A-Bomb) Fusion (H-Bomb) B). U-235, U-238 and Plutonium III. The Mechanism of The Bomb - A). Altimeter B). Air Pressure Detonator C). Detonating Head(s) D). Explosive Charge(s) E). Neutron Deflector F). Uranium Plutonium G). Lead Shield H). Fuses IV. The Diagram of The Bomb A). The Uranium Bomb B). The Plutonium Bomb ============================================================================ File courtesy of Outlaw Labs I. The History of the Atomic Bomb On August 2nd 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known only then as the Manhattan Project. Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb. The most complicated issue to be addressed was the production of ample amounts of `enriched uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, Uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from Uranium ore to Uranium metal is 500:1. An additional drawback is that the 1 part of Uranium that is finally refined from the ore consists of over 99% Uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make it even more difficult, U-235 and U-238 are precisely similar in their chemical makeup. This proved to be as much of a challenge as separating a solution of sucrose from a solution of glucose. No ordinary chemical extraction could separate the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238. Several scientists at Columbia University managed to solve this dilemma. A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H. C. Urey, along with his associates and colleagues at Columbia University, devised a system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion. Following this process, Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes. Following the first two processes, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier non-fissionable U-238 by their mass. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission. For more information on these procedures of refining Uranium, see Section 3. Over the course of six years, ranging from 1939 to 1945, more than 2 billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining Uranium and putting together a working bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Among these people who unleashed the power of the atomic bomb was J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer was the major force behind the Manhattan Project. He literally ran the show and saw to it that all of the great minds working on this project made their brainstorms work. He oversaw the entire project from its conception to its completion. Finally the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out whether or not The Gadget (code-named as such during its development) was either going to be the colossal dud of the century or perhaps end the war. It all came down to a fateful morning of midsummer, 1945. At 5:29:45 (Mountain War Time) on July 16th, 1945, in a white blaze that stretched from the basin of the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico to the still-dark skies, The Gadget ushered in the Atomic Age. The light of the explosion then turned orange as the atomic fireball began shooting upwards at 360 feet per second, reddening and pulsing as it cooled. The characteristic mushroom cloud of radioactive vapor materialized at 30,000 feet. Beneath the cloud, all that remained of the soil at the blast site were fragments of jade green radioactive glass. All of this caused by the heat of the reaction. The brilliant light from the detonation pierced the early morning skies with such intensity that residents from a faraway neighboring community would swear that the sun came up twice that day. Even more astonishing is that a blind girl saw the flash 120 miles away. Upon witnessing the explosion, reactions among the people who created it were mixed. Isidor Rabi felt that the equilibrium in nature had been upset as if humankind had become a threat to the world it inhabited. J. Robert Oppenheimer, though ecstatic about the success of the project, quoted a remembered fragment from Bhagavad Gita. I am become Death, he said, the destroyer of worlds. Ken Bainbridge, the test director, told Oppenheimer, Now were all sons of bitches. Several participants, shortly after viewing the results, signed petitions against loosing the monster they had created, but their protests fell on deaf ears. As it later turned out, the Jornada del Muerto of New Mexico was not the last site on planet Earth to experience an atomic explosion. As many know, atomic bombs have been used only twice in warfare. The first and foremost blast site of the atomic bomb is Hiroshima. A Uranium bomb (which weighed in at over 4 1/2 tons) nicknamed Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima August 6th, 1945. The Aioi Bridge, one of 81 bridges connecting the seven-branched delta of the Ota River, was the aiming point of the bomb. Ground Zero was set at 1,980 feet. At 0815 hours, the bomb was dropped from the Enola Gay. It missed by only 800 feet. At 0816 hours, in the flash of an instant, 66,000 people were killed and 69,000 people were injured by a 10 kiloton atomic explosion. The point of total vaporization from the blast measured one half of a mile in diameter. Total destruction ranged at one mile in diameter. Severe blast damage carried as far as two miles in diameter. At two and a half miles, everything flammable in the area burned. The remaining area of the blast zone was riddled with serious blazes that stretched out to the final edge at a little over three miles in diameter. See diagram below for blast ranges from the atomic blast. On August 9th 1945, Nagasaki fell to the same treatment as Hiroshima. Only this time, a Plutonium bomb nicknamed Fat Man was dropped on the city. Even though the Fat Man missed by over a mile and a half, it still leveled nearly half the city. Nagasakis population dropped in one split-second from 422,000 to 383,000. 39,000 were killed, over 25,000 were injured. That blast was less than 10 kilotons as well. Estimates from physicists who have studied each atomic explosion state that the bombs that were used had utilized only 1/10th of 1 percent of their respective explosive capabilities. While the mere explosion from an atomic bomb is deadly enough, its destructive ability doesnt stop there. Atomic fallout creates another hazard as well. The rain that follows any atomic detonation is laden with radioactive particles. Many survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts succumbed to radiation poisoning due to this occurance. The atomic detonation also has the hidden lethal surprise of affecting the future generations of those who live through it. Leukemia is among the greatest of afflictions that are passed on to the offspring of survivors. While the main purpose behind the atomic bomb is obvious, there are many by-products that have been brought into consideration in the use of all weapons atomic. With one small atomic bomb, a massive areas communications, travel and machinery will grind to a dead halt due to the EMP (Electro- Magnetic Pulse) that is radiated from a high-altitude atomic detonation. These high-level detonations are hardly lethal, yet they deliver a serious enough EMP to scramble any and all things electronic ranging from copper wires all the way up to a computers CPU within a 50 mile radius. At one time, during the early days of The Atomic Age, it was a popular notion that one day atomic bombs would one day be used in mining operations and perhaps aid in the construction of another Panama Canal. Needless to say, it never came about. Instead, the military applications of atomic destruction increased. Atomic tests off of the Bikini Atoll and several other sites were common up until the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was introduced. Photos of nuclear test sites here in the United States can be obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. ============================================================================ Breakdown of the Atomic Bombs Blast Zones - . . . . . . . . 5 4 5 . . . . . . . . . . 3 _ 3 . . . 2 . . . _._ . . .~ ~. . . . 4 . .2. 1 .2. . 4 . . . . . . . ~-.-~ . . . 2 . . . 3 3 . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ 5 . 4 . 5 . . . . . . ============================================================================ Diagram Outline 1 Vaporization Point Everything is vaporized by the atomic blast. 98% fatalities. Overpress=25 psi. Wind velocity=320 mph. Krik Krak Essay A simple piece of very thin magnetized metal can be used as an air pressure detonator. All that is needed is for the strip of metal to have a bubble of extremely thin metal forged in the center and have it placed directly underneath the electrical contact which will trigger the conventional explosive detonation. Before setting the strip in place, push the bubble in so that it will be inverted. Once the air pressure has achieved the desired level, the magnetic bubble will snap back into its original position and strike the contact, thus completing the circuit and setting off the explosive(s). Detonating Head The detonating head (or heads, depending on whether a Uranium or Plutonium bomb is being used as a model) that is seated in the conventional explosive charge(s) is similar to the standard-issue blasting cap. It merely serves as a catalyst to bring about a greater explosion. Calibration of this device is essential. Too small of a detonating head will only cause a colossal dud that will be doubly dangerous since someones got to disarm and re-fit the bomb with another detonating head. (an added measure of discomfort comes from the knowledge that the conventional explosive may have detonated with insufficient force to weld the radioactive metals. This will cause a supercritical mass that could go off at any time.) The detonating head will receive an electric charge from the either the air pressure detonator or the radar altimeters coordinating detonator, depending on what type of system is used. The Du Pont company makes rather excellent blasting caps that can be easily modified to suit the required specifications. Conventional Explosive Charge(s) This explosive is used to introduce (and weld) the lesser amount of Uranium to the greater amount within the bombs housing. The amount of pressure needed to bring this about is unknown and possibly classified by the United States Government for reasons of National Security Plastic explosives work best in this situation since they can be manipulated to enable both a Uranium bomb and a Plutonium bomb to detonate. One very good explosive is Urea Nitrate. The directions on how to make Urea Nitrate are as follows: Ingredients 1 1 cup concentrated solution of uric acid (C5 H4 N4 O3) 2 1/3 cup of nitric acid 3 4 heat-resistant glass containers 4 4 filters (coffee filters will do) Filter the concentrated solution of uric acid through a filter to remove impurities. Slowly add 1/3 cup of nitric acid to the solution and let the mixture stand for 1 hour. Filter again as before. This time the Urea Nitrate crystals will collect on the filter. Wash the crystals by pouring water over them while they are in the filter. Remove the crystals from the filter and allow 16 hours for them to dry. This explosive will need a blasting cap to detonate. It may be necessary to make a quantity larger than the aforementioned list calls for to bring about an explosion great enough to cause the Uranium (or Plutonium) sections to weld together on impact. Neutron Deflector The neutron deflector is comprised solely of Uranium-238. Not only is U-238 non-fissionable, it also has the unique ability to reflect neutrons back to their source. The U-238 neutron deflector can serve 2 purposes. In a Uranium bomb, the neutron deflector serves as a safeguard to keep an accidental supercritical mass from occurring by bouncing the stray neutrons from the `bullet counterpart of the Uranium mass away from the greater mass below it (and vice- versa). The neutron deflector in a Plutonium bomb actually helps the wedges of Plutonium retain their neutrons by `reflecting the stray particles back into the center of the assembly. See diagram in Section 4 of this file. Uranium Plutonium - Uranium-235 is very difficult to extract. In fact, for every 25,000 tons of Uranium ore that is mined from the earth, only 50 tons of Uranium metal can be refined from that, and 99.3% of that metal is U-238 which is too stable to be used as an active agent in an atomic detonation. To make matters even more complicated, no ordinary chemical extraction can separate the two isotopes since both U-235 and U-238 possess precisely identical chemical characteristics. The only methods that can effectively separate U-235 from U-238 are mechanical methods. U-235 is slightly, but only slightly, lighter than its counterpart, U-238. A system of gaseous diffusion is used to begin the separating process between the two isotopes. In this system, Uranium is combined with fluorine to form Uranium Hexafluoride gas. This mixture is then propelled by low- pressure pumps through a series of extremely fine porous barriers. Because the U-235 atoms are lighter and thus propelled faster than the U-238 atoms, they could penetrate the barriers more rapidly. As a result, the U-235s concentration became successively greater as it passed through each barrier. After passing through several thousand barriers, the Uranium Hexafluoride contains a relatively high concentration of U-235 2% pure Uranium in the case of reactor fuel, and if pushed further could (theoretically) yield up to 95% pure Uranium for use in an atomic bomb. Once the process of gaseous diffusion is finished, the Uranium must be refined once again. Magnetic separation of the extract from the previous enriching process is then implemented to further refine the Uranium. This involves electrically charging Uranium Tetrachloride gas and directing it past a weak electromagnet. Since the lighter U-235 particles in the gas stream are less affected by the magnetic pull, they can be gradually separated from the flow. Following the first two procedures, a third enrichment process is then applied to the extract from the second process. In this procedure, a gas centrifuge is brought into action to further separate the lighter U-235 from its heavier counter-isotope. Centrifugal force separates the two isotopes of Uranium by their mass. Once all of these procedures have been completed, all that need be done is to place the properly molded components of Uranium-235 inside a warhead that will facilitate an atomic detonation. Supercritical mass for Uranium-235 is defined as 110 lbs (50 kgs) of pure Uranium. Depending on the refining process(es) used when purifying the U-235 for use, along with the design of the warhead mechanism and the altitude at which it detonates, the explosive force of the A-bomb can range anywhere from 1 kiloton (which equals 1,000 tons of TNT) to 20 megatons (which equals 20 million tons of TNT which, by the way, is the smallest strategic nuclear warhead we possess today. {Point in fact One Trident Nuclear Submarine carries as much destructive power as 25 World War IIs}). While Uranium is an ideally fissionable material, it is not the only one. Plutonium can be used in an atomic bomb as well. By leaving U-238 inside an atomic reactor for an extended period of time, the U-238 picks up extra particles (neutrons especially) and gradually is transformed into the element Plutonium. Plutonium is fissionable, but not as easily fissionable as Uranium. While Uranium can be detonated by a simple 2-part gun-type device, Plutonium must be detonated by a more complex 32-part implosion chamber along with a stronger conventional explosive, a greater striking velocity and a simultaneous triggering mechanism for the conventional explosive packs. Along with all of these requirements comes the additional task of introducing a fine mixture of Beryllium and Polonium to this metal while all of these actions are occurring. Supercritical mass for Plutonium is defined as 35.2 lbs (16 kgs). This amount needed for a supercritical mass can be reduced to a smaller quantity of 22 lbs (10 kgs) by surrounding the Plutonium with a U-238 casing. To illustrate the vast difference between a Uranium gun-type detonator and a Plutonium implosion detonator, here is a quick rundown. ============================================================================ 1 Uranium Detonator Comprised of 2 parts. Larger mass is spherical and concave. Smaller mass is precisely the size and shape of the `missing section of the larger mass. Upon detonation of conventional explosive, the smaller mass is violently injected and welded to the larger mass. Supercritical mass is reached, chain reaction follows in one millionth of a second. 2 Plutonium Detonator - Comprised of 32 individual 45-degree pie-shaped sections of Plutonium surrounding a Beryllium/Polonium mixture. These 32 sections together form a sphere. All of these sections must have the precisely equal mass (and shape) of the others. The shape of the detonator resembles a soccerball. Upon detonation of conventional explosives, all 32 sections must merge with the B/P mixture within 1 ten-millionths of a second. ____________________________________________________________________________ Diagram - ____________________________________________________________________________ | Uranium Detonator | Plutonium Detonator ______________________________________|_____________________________________ _____ | | 😠 | . 2 . | 😠 | . ~ \_/ ~ . | 2:| | .. . . . | 😠 | 2| . |2 | .:| | . ~~~ . . . ~~~ . `:: | . . . . . _ ~~~ _ | . . ~ . . . `| |:.. | 2. . . . 1 . . . ./2 . | | `:::. | ./ . ~~~ . . | | `::: | . . : . . . | | :::: | . . . . . | 1 | ::|:: | . ___ . ___ . . `. . ,::||: | 2| . |2 ~~~ ::|||: | . _ `. .. 2 .::|||: | . / . :: ..::||||: | ~ -2- ~ :::::::::::::||||:: | ::::||||||||: | ::::: | | | | | 1 = Collision Point | 1 = Collision Point 2 Uranium Section(s) | 2 = Plutonium Section(s) | | ______________________________________|_____________________________________ ============================================================================ Lead Shield The lead shields only purpose is to prevent the inherent radioactivity of the bombs payload from interfering with the other mechanisms of the bomb. The neutron flux of the bombs payload is strong enough to short circuit the internal circuitry and cause an accidental or premature detonation. Fuses The fuses are implemented as another safeguard to prevent an accidental detonation of both the conventional explosives and the nuclear payload. These fuses are set near the surface of the `nose of the bomb so that they can be installed easily when the bomb is ready to be launched. The fuses should be installed only shortly before the bomb is launched. To affix them before it is time could result in an accident of catastrophic proportions.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

The Burning Fire Tree WIth Roses and Candy Essay Example For Students

The Burning Fire Tree WIth Roses and Candy Essay Thompson Arcella Jefferson- Newts first love Jefferson Cavanaugh- Judge of Cherokee Flats, employer of Sarah Winger Marcus Savage- Newts adversary Silas Newhall- Accused murderer of Jake Kiner Other Characters III. Setting Place: Cherokee Flats, Kansas Time: 1920s Description: A small Southern town with blazing summers and freezing winters IV. Plot This novel is about Newt Winger and his family during his years in Cherokee Flats. It tells about his (Newts) first love, first enemy, and his first encounters with death and racism. He even saves a white mans life, despitestrong and that some how it could be cured but nope, not a chance. We will write a custom essay on The Burning Fire Tree WIth Roses and Candy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now He learns that as he gets killed with the untrusting look in Charlies eyes. Unfortunately, before Charlie could get to John, John got to Andy, and Andy was killed. Charlie was dumbfounded. She couldnt believe that her father was dead. Out of all of those years that she and he had gone out and ran from the government, it was over; she no longerBibliography:I didnt use juice

Thursday, March 5, 2020

USS Arizona (BB-39) at Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona (BB-39) at Pearl Harbor USS Arizona (BB-39) Overview: Nation: United States Type: Battleship Shipyard: Brooklyn Navy Yard Laid Down: March 16, 1914 Launched: June 19, 1915 Commissioned: October 17, 1916 Fate: Sunk December 7, 1941 USS Arizona (BB-39) Specifications: Displacement: 31,400 tons Length: 608 ft. Beam: 106 ft. Draft: 30 ft. Propulsion: 4 propellers driven by Parson steam turbines Speed: 21 knots Range: 9,200 miles at 12 knots Complement: 1,385 men Armament (September 1940) Guns 12 Ãâ€" 14 in. (360 mm)/45 cal guns (4 triple turrets)12 Ãâ€" 5 in./51 cal. guns12 Ãâ€" 5 in./25 cal. anti-aircraft guns Aircraft 2 x aircraft USS Arizona (BB-39) - Design Construction: Approved by Congress on March 4, 1913, USS Arizona was designed as a super-dreadnought battleship. The second and final ship of the Pennsylvania-class, Arizona was laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on March 16, 1914. With World War I raging overseas, work continued on the ship and it was ready for launching the following June. Slipping down the ways on June 19, 1915, Arizona was sponsored by Miss Esther Ross of Prescott, AZ. Over the next year, work progressed as the ships new Parson turbine engines were installed and the rest of its machinery brought on board. An improvement on the earlier Nevada-class, the Pennsylvania-class featured a heavier main armament of twelve 14 guns mounted in four triple turrets as well as a slightly higher speed. The class also saw the US Navys abandonment of vertical triple expansion steam engines in favor of steam turbine technology. More economical, this propulsion system used less fuel oil than its predecessor. In addition, the Pennsylvanias introduced the four engine, four propeller layout that would become standard on all future American battleships. For protection, the two ships of the Pennsylvania-class possessed an advanced four-layer system of armor. This consisted of thin plating, air space, thin plate, oil space, thin plate, air space, followed with a thicker layer of armor nearly ten feet inboard. The theory behind this layout was that the air and oil space would aid in dissipating shell or torpedo explosions. In testing, this arrangement withstood an explosion of 300 lbs. of dynamite. Work on Arizona was completed in late 1916 and the ship was commissioned on October 17 with Captain John D. McDonald in command. USS Arizona (BB-39) - Operations During World War I: Departing New York the following month, Arizona conducted its shakedown cruise off the Virginia Capes and Newport, RI before proceeding south to Guantnamo Bay. Returning to the Chesapeake in December, it conducted torpedo and firing exercises in Tangier Sound. These complete, Arizona sailed for Brooklyn where post-shakedown alterations were made to the ship. With these issues addressed, the new battleship was assigned to Battleship Division 8 (BatDiv 8) at Norfolk. It arrived there on April 4, 1917, only days before the US entered World War I. During the war, Arizona, along with the other oil-fired battleships of the US Navy, remained assigned to the East Coast due to a shortage of fuel oil in Britain. Patrolling the waters between Norfolk and New York, Arizona also served as a gunnery training ship. With the wars conclusion on November 11, 1918, Arizona and BatDiv 8 sailed for Britain. Arriving on November 30, it sortied on December 12 to aid in escorting President Woodrow Wilson, aboard the liner George Washington, into Brest, France for the Paris Peace Conference. This done, it embarked American troops for the voyage home two days later. USS Arizona (BB-39) - The Interwar Years: Arriving off New York on Christmas Eve, Arizona led a naval review into the harbor the next day. After participating in maneuvers in the Caribbean during the spring of 1919, the battleship crossed the Atlantic and reached Brest on May 3. Sailing into the Mediterranean, it arrived off Smyrna (Izmir) on May 11 where it provided protection to American citizens during the Greek occupation of the port. Going ashore, Arizonas Marine detachment aided in guarding the American consulate. Returning to New York in late June, the ship underwent alterations at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. For much of the 1920s, Arizona served in a variety of peacetime roles and moved through assignments with BatDivs 7, 2, 3, and 4. Having been operating in the Pacific, the ship transited the Panama Canal on February 7, 1929 en route to Norfolk for modernization. Entering the yard, it was placed in reduced commission on July 15 as work began. As part of the modernization, Arizonas cage masts were placed with tripod masts topped by three-level fire control tops, alterations were made to its 5 in. guns, and additional armor was added. While in the yard, the ship also received new boilers and turbines. Returning to full commission on March 1, 1931, the ship embarked President Herbert Hoover on the 19th for a cruise to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Following this assignment, post-modernization trials were conducted off the coast of Maine. With this completed, it was assigned to BatDiv 3 at San Pedro, CA. For much of the next decade, the ship operated with the Battle Fleet in the Pacific. On September 17, 1938, it became the flagship of Rear Admiral Chester Nimitzs BatDiv 1. Nimitz remained on board until passing command to Rear Admiral Russell Willson the following year. USS Arizona (BB-39) - Pearl Harbor: Following Fleet Problem XXI in April 1940, the US Pacific Fleet was retained at Pearl Harbor due to increasing tensions with Japan. The ship operated around Hawaii until late summer when it sailed for Long Beach, CA en route to an overhaul at the Puget Sound Navy Yard. Among the work completed were improvements to Arizonas anti-aircraft battery. On January 23, 1941, Willson was relieved by Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd. Returning to Pearl Harbor, the battleship took part in a series of training exercises during 1941 before undergoing a brief overhaul in October. Arizona sailed for the final time on December 4 to take part in firing exercises. Returning the next day, it took the repair ship USS Vestal alongside on December 6. The next morning, the Japanese commenced their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor shortly before 8:00 AM. Sounding general quarters at 7:55, Kidd and Captain Franklin van Valkenburgh raced to the bridge. Shortly after 8:00, a bomb dropped by a Nakajima B5N Kate glanced off #4 turret starting a small fire. This was followed by another bomb hit at 8:06. Striking between and to the port of #1 and #2 turrets, this hit ignited a fire which detonated Arizonas forward magazine. This resulted in a massive explosion which destroyed the forward part of the ship and started fires which burned for two days. The explosion killed Kidd and van Valkenburgh, both of whom received the Medal of Honor for their actions. The ships damage control officer, Lieutenant Commander Samuel G. Fuqua, also was awarded the Medal of Honor for his role in fighting the fires and attempting to rescue survivors. As a result of the explosion, fires, and sinking, 1,177 of Arizonas 1,400-man crew were killed. As salvage work began after the attack, it was determined that the ship was a total loss. While the majority of its surviving guns were removed for future use, its superstructure was largely cut down to the waterline. A powerful symbol of the attack, the ships remains was bridged by the USS Arizona Memorial which was dedicated in 1962. The remains of Arizona, which still bleed oil, were designated a National Historic Landmark on May 5, 1989. Selected Sources Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships: USS ArizonaUniversity of Arizona: USS ArizonaNational Park Service: Valor in the Pacific

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Chapter 6 class activity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chapter 6 class activity - Essay Example The main stages in the stages of change model include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and termination. If I am in the stage of the precontemplation, more information on the risks associated with unhealthy behavior will help me move to the next stage. Additional information would open my eyes to the benefits of healthy behavior and risks of unhealthy behavior that I possess. In the contemplation stage, I would need to think deeply about the kind of a person I can become if I adopt healthy behavior. Therefore, relating with people practicing healthy behavior would help me reducing the disadvantages I associate with changing to healthy behavior. At the preparation stage, I need encouragement from trusted friends that I will succeed if I start the action stage. This will help me handle my biggest fears. In the action stage, I would need to learn how to substitute unhealthy behavior with healthy behavior. In the maintenance stage, I would need to learn how to deal with stress and avoid relapsing to unhealthy behavior (Hjemdahl, Rosengren & Steptoe

Monday, February 3, 2020

International Marketing Strategies of Pepsi and Apple Inc Essay - 7

International Marketing Strategies of Pepsi and Apple Inc - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that PepsiCo and Apple Inc are two renowned international companies making a name while employing international marketing activity across the world. These companies have instituted what is vital to marketing in the international context. They employed the essential activities for them to be able to surpass a very tough competition in their industry around the world. Apple Inc has become popular with its capacity to innovate not just in marketing activities, but almost all components of its operation. PepsiCo, on the other hand, has become trendy with its ability to initiate the high level of market performance with a purpose, allowing it to rank next to Coca-Cola.   Ã‚  Ã‚  These two companies are therefore mostly studied because of their innovative approach and contribution to modern marketing techniques, allowing them to employ marketing strategies that at some point are cut above the other while adhering to the basics. They eventually do not just settle for less, but above all are market leaders willing to substantially innovate and create a difference in their respective industry.PepsiCo, for instance, has become the wide competitor of Coca-Cola, and in this situation, it is necessary for the firm not only to contend but create its brand as something worthy to be considered unique and one of a kind in its industry. On the other hand, Apple Inc is experiencing the same scenario, because of the linked many players in its industry. It is going to be hard for the company to compete in an industry where there are relevant key players mushrooming and aiming to get a substantial market share and a sustainable competitive advantage. However, Apple Inc has eventually proven its worth, allowing it to be as one of the top key players in its industry. In 2012, the firm was voted as the winner of the 2012 CMO Survey Award for Marketing Excellence.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Adapting Global Marketing Strategies To The Indian Context

Adapting Global Marketing Strategies To The Indian Context In this report, we look at how the global marketing strategies should be adopted to suit the Indian Customers. We initially look at the Global marketing strategies which can help the marketing managers to boost their sales in different parts of the world. In these strategies, the report covers various aspects of the marketing mix like product, promotion, price, branding, distribution etc. Then the report explains about our country India in terms of its demographics, Culture, Rural/Urban Divide, the decision makers etc and covers the aspects which differentiate our country from the rest of the world. Then the report explains how the global marketing strategies should be adopted to the Indian context with respect to the global marketing strategies which was explained initially. Then the report takes the case study of HUL and how it has modified the marketing strategy to suit the Indian needs and the report critically analyzes the strategies adopted by HUL. Introduction This study examines the global marketing strategies and how those strategies should be adapted to the Indian customers. Then we take the case study of HUL and critically analyze the strategies which it followed. As Prospective future managers of Multi National FMCG Companies operating in India, we might often have to tackle situations where we have to adopt their marketing strategies to India. This study would be of help to the budding managers to prepare themselves to tackle the marketing challenges which they might face in their careers. HUL being one of the multinational companies which has been present in India for a long time and which has been able to capture the minds of each and every Indian serves as the perfect case study to analyze the marketing strategies followed by an MNC in India. In this report, we would be analyzing the strategies of HUL and critically analyze the marketing strategies which they adopted in India. Methodology Our study The Adaptation of Global Marketing Strategies to the Indian Context essentially has the following major parts to it: Understanding the Marketing strategies that firms undertake when they expand Globally: The Marketing Mix Consideration of Local factors (Political, Economic, Social etc) The considered differences from the domestic strategy Understanding the Target market i.e. India The Situation (Conditions Suitable/Unsuitable for marketing) Demography Evaluating the Potential Economic Status Identifying the major buyers (Middle Class in the Indian context) Understanding the specifics: How the Indian market is different and how differently do the consumers behave Combination: Going through the above 2 steps and finding out how to incorporate the Indian specifics within a companys marketing strategy while in international expansion phase A case study of Unilever: To substantiate our study we did a case study on Unilever to find out what Unilever did right and wrong in its Indian subsidiary: HUL ANALYSIS Marketing Globally In whichever part of the world a company operates, the objective of marketing is to create, communicate and deliver value to the customers. But the methodology by which this process is carried out should be adapted to the country in which the company operates to market the product effectively to the customers. It is imperative for any Global marketing manager to feel and touch the hearts of the local customers to make his/her brands a success in the country in which the company operates. In this section, we describe the various marketing strategies which can be employed for Global Marketing and then we will analyze how various elements of the marketing mix like Product, pricing, promotion, Branding and distribution should be fine tuned to suit various geographies/countries. Global marketing Strategies The application of various Marketing Strategies will depend upon the orientation of the company towards a particular market. i.e., how the firm views a particular market. The various marketing orientations are explained below followed by various ways to segment the markets internationally. Orientations The various orientations can be classified as A Chinese Coke Bill Board: Notice the use of Chinese language and ActorsProduction orientation wherein the company focuses on maximizing the efficiency or quality of the product with very little spend on marketing, E.g. commodities like oil etc Sales orientation wherein a firm sells abroad what it sells in the domestic market. E.g. products like laptops, Tennis rackets etc Customer Orientation wherein the company modifies its product as well as marketing strategies to suit the customers needs. E.g. Mac Donalds made modifications in its product line in India to suit the preferences of the Indian Customer. Strategic Orientation which combines all the above mentioned orientations. Here the Marketing managers make slight modifications to their core product or marketing strategy without deviating from their expertise. E.g., A Pantene Sachet is made to suit the customers in developing countries even though the core product, shampoo remains the same. Segmentation There are basically three approaches to segmentation which are mentioned below By Country: A firm may first select a country based on certain parameters like GDP growth, Per capita consumption etc and then decide upon which segments to target in the particular country and decide upon the marketing mix and the promotional strategies to target those segments By Segment: In this case, the company would look at the global customers as a whole and then segment them. After segmenting, the company would choose to enter those countries which has a substantial number of customers in that segment By Country and segment: In this case, the company would find out the multiple segments within all the countries, find out the similar segments in multiple countries which can be targeted and enter the countries in which the segments which can be targeted exist. Product Often in many cases, when a company introduces its product in a foreign market, it would have to make modifications in its products for various reasons some of which are listed below. Legal/Environmental standards Often Legal/Environmental requirements forces companies to make alteration in its products to suit a particular country. For e.g., Environment Safety standards set by some countries for automobiles make it necessary for any firm willing to enter into those countries to make necessary changes in their products. Packaging requirements Pepsi Bottles in Japan. Notice the unique flavors and shape to suit Japanese CustomersSome countries might have some rules which insist on displaying warning information as in the case of cigarettes or detailed information of the contents in case of food products. This might force companies to use different countries. Language also could force companies to use different packaging for different countries. Social/Cultural Considerations Often companies would have to make minor modifications in the product for various countries to accommodate the social and cultural preferences of the country. For e.g, it is said The japanese eat with their eyes. So many firms improves the aesthetic dimension in their food products to attract Japanese customers. Economic Considerations Economic considerations like Income, Infrastructure etc forces companies to make changes in their product. For e.g, Nokia made some models meant for the developing countries to suit their rugged terrains. Decision on Product Alteration To decide whether a product should be altered for a particular country or not, the company should estimate the incremental profit which can be bought in by product alterations and the cost involved in alterations. If the incremental profit is higher than the cost involved, the company should go for the product alteration. Global Pricing Strategies Pricing, One of the elements of the marketing mix is very essential to ensure that it can generate sufficient sales for the company and able to provide sufficient margins for the company. When compared to pricing a product domestically, International pricing is much more complex due to the following factors Government Regulations: Government regulations like Tariffs, Quota, Price Ceiling and Floors makes it difficult for firms to price a product uniformly across the globe. Market Diversity: The diversity of markets among various countries can be taken advantage of to price a product at a premium in some markets. For e.g., Gold Jewellery is much admired in India than in other parts of the world and hence can be sold at a premium. Price Escalation due to Exports: When a company exports a product to another country, various costs like shipping costs, customs duty etc might result in escalation of costs. To retain the price competency, the company might have to sell its products to the intermediaries at a lower cost. Forex Volatility: When a firm sells its products abroad, it is exposed to the risk of the foreign currency losing its value in future. In a monopolistic market, the firm can manage the volatility by increasing the prices in such cases. But in highly competitive markets, firms should go for currency derivatives to manage the currency risk. Pricing Strategies In pricing a product, the company should take into account the competitive scenario in the target market. If its less competitive, the firm can have much discretion in setting prices. It can use the following strategies in such market Skimming strategy: This strategy involves charging a high price for the product to target the customers willing to pay the premium and then lowering the price over the time. Penetration strategy: This strategy involves introducing the product at a low price to penetrate the market Cost-plus strategy: This involves pricing the product at a particular price so as to maintain a desirable margin. Pricing should also take into account the stereo types customers have about products originating from certain countries. For e,g a German Car would be able to command a premium which a car manufacturer from a developing country would not be able to. Firms should also ensure that the price difference between two countries should not be higher than the cost involved in bringing the product to the higher priced country from the lower priced country as a spillover might occur otherwise. Global Promotion Strategies Promotion refers to the communication of messages intended to increase the sales of the product. In the case of Global promotion, managers often have to decide on the following strategies Push/Pull Strategy A push strategy refers to promoting the product by using direct selling strategies like distributing brochures, promotion via salesman, promotion at mass gatherings by distributing free samples. A Pull strategy refers to promotion by using the medium like newspaper, television, magazines etc. The decision of push/pull should be made taking into account various factors like the reach of mass media like TV, how educated the customers are and the distribution network. Higher spend on pull strategy is recommended when the reach of the mass media is high and the customers are well educated. Higher spend on push strategy is recommended in countries where the distribution network is well developed, customers are not highly educated and the reach of mass media is less. It is always advisable to go for a mix of both strategies. Standardization Vs Localization In many of the ads, some amount of localization would be required for various countries as the languages and the culture differs between countries. But at the same time, firms should ensure that it doesnt create confusion in the minds of the customers by portraying itself differently in different countries. It is preferable to localize the constituents of promotion like language, actors etc but it is preferable to keep the theme consistent across countries. The firms can also use some mediums like product placement in Hollywood movies to effectively promote the brand across the entire globe in an effective manner. For e.g. the recent movie Iron Man 2 featured an assortment of 54 brands in it. The firms should also consider the legality and the culture of the country into account when designing ads. For e.g. display of nudity or violence will not go well with all cultures and governments. Global Branding Strategies Product Placement of Honey Puffs in the movie Kick Ass released in 2010A Brand represents an identifying mark for products or services of a company. Consumers develop a perception about various brands and the firms can use this brand perception of the customers to their advantage. But in international marketing, linguistic issues as well as cultural issues can make it difficult for firms to maintain a uniform brand identity throughout the globe. For e.g. some of the brand names might resemble abusive words in certain languages which might force the firms to tweak their brand names to suit the local customer. Also in case of acquisitions, the acquiring company might choose to go by the domestic brand identity to retain the goodwill which was created over the years. E.g. Citibank after the acquisition of Banamex in Mexico decided to retain the brand identity of Banamex which proved to be a successful strategy. International Distribution Strategies A company can benefit from a great product and a great marketing campaign to support the product only if there is a good distribution system in place to make the product available to the customer. A firm might either go for standardizing or localizing the distribution system in different countries. But standardization would work only in those countries where the distribution structure is similar. Else, a localized distribution system is preferred. For e.g. In Developed countries most of the FMCG sales would happen via big retail chains whereas in developing countries, small kirana stores play a critical role in distributing the products to the nook and corner of the country. In International distribution, most firms also have to make the decision of whether to outsource distribution or do it on its own. The following guidelines should be followed for making the decision on outsourcing distribution Political Stability: When entering a country where political stability is less, it would be advisable to outsource distribution rather than investing in own distribution network Product Characteristics: In the case of complex or high technology products which require good after sales service, it is desirable to have the firms own distribution network. When planning to enter a country, the firms should also take into account the hidden costs involved in distribution like the infrastructure of the country, the number of distribution levels, inefficiencies in retail networks, inventory stock outs etc. Gap Analysis Gap AnalysisAfter entering a country, if a company finds it not being able to achieve the expected sales, it can use Gap Analysis to take corrective actions necessary to improve its sales. The Company should first estimate the market potential for its products which is represented by the total height of all the boxes. The height till point X represents the actual sales of all the firms combined. The bottom most box represent the companys current sales. The difference between X and Y represents the sales lost to competitors. Usage gap represents the difference between the sales potential and the actual sales of the product. If the usage gap is high, the company can improve its sales by making the public more aware of the product in general. The Distribution gap represents the sales lost to its competitors because the firm is not able to distribute in certain locations which is serviced by its competitors. If the distribution gap is high, the company can improve its sales by widening its distribution network. The product line gap represents the sales lost to its competitors because the competitors are able to come up with product variations which the company unable to. This gap can be closed by investing in R D, understanding the customer needs and promoting innovation in its local organization. Finally, Competitive gap is the loss in sales which cannot be explained due to the other two reasons. This could be because the competitors have better marketing campaigns, has better good will or is able to sell it at a lower price. Investing in marketing promotions and lowering prices would be of help in closing this gap. The Indian Context Quick Facts India An Overview A population in excess of 1 billion The 4th largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) The largest democracy with a stable government An independent judiciary system Plentiful natural Resources A private sector that can return significant gains on foreign direct investment Strong Entrepreneurship interest among Indians World class quality products across domains India An Overview A population in excess of 1 billion The 4th largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) The largest democracy with a stable government An independent judiciary system Plentiful natural Resources A private sector that can return significant gains on foreign direct investment Strong Entrepreneurship interest among Indians World class quality products across domains India on the Upsurge Indias huge population: A Huge Market as well? Figure 1 India PopulationIndia, with a population of 1.14 billion people (According to World Bank estimates), is the second most populated country in the world. This huge population means a huge market size for most multinational firms wishing to expand its operations in India. This however, has only partial merit. Though the number of people living in the country is large, we have to consider other factors as well. Only 64% of the people are in the age group 15-64. This makes this group the only active buyers. There are other factors which need to be looked at as well, when evaluating a potential market: The Purchasing Power of the inhabitants, their buying thought process and educational status etc. Nevertheless, India, in spite of all these factors, still provides a huge market place for firms to sell their products in. Literacy Rates: The Educated Buyer Literacy rates in India are rising as can be seen from the figure. India is striving hard to provide good education to children. Setting up premier educational institutes like the IIMs, IITs and NITs has given an impetus to the education levels in the nation. Kerala has become the first state to achieve 100% literacy. Indian scholars have achieved a name for themselves globally. Figure 2 India Literacy Rates (%)We can therefore say that though a lot still needs to be done in the educational sphere, India is well on its way to claim a strong position in international terms. The impact that education has on consumer behaviour is immense. A literate consumer is an informed consumer. He can easily read between the lines and establish on his own whether a particular product will be beneficia or not. With the immense choice available in the market, an informed customer can always make an educated choice. He will also be open to new ideas, new technologies and new products and will be able to adapt to them easily. Economic Conditions: Ability to buy India has been witnessing massive drops in unemployment rate which rings in good news for global marketers as well. Decrease in unemployment would mean an increase in living standards which would in turn mean that people have the ability to buy more. Marketers have an opportunity to sell more to Indian customers. With drop in unemployment rate, the sectors most likely to grow are those dealing with basic necessities. Figure 3 India: Unemployment Rate (%)Therefore the retail sector is likely to grow the most, riding high on growth in FMCG. Along with increased purchasing power at an individual level, the overall economic growth has a huge impact on the ability to buy. Indian GDP, in purchasing power parity terms, has been on the upsurge except for the past two years (which was majorly due to the global economic downturn and the sub-prime crisis). An improving economy of a country also indicates the improved buyer status of its residents. Figure 4 India GDP (PPP) (Billion $) Thus, we can see that with the factors of population, literacy and rising economic status on its side, India presents itself as a lucrative market for firms, national as well as international. Consumer Behaviour in India: Unique Patterns India as a market, though lucrative, poses challenges of its own. The consumption behavior of Indians in some manners is quite similar to other countries, but the culture and diversity in India pose specific problem statements that are unique to India. Impact of Cultural Diversity India is a country immersed in diversity. The sheer difference in the people of India, based on caste, creed, religion, gender, economic status etc, makes the life of a marketer very difficult. It is his responsibility that a perfect product mix, customized to the satisfaction of each and every member of the society (as a potential buyer) reaches the market. For example, some part of the population is non-vegetarian while others (Jains, some Hindus) are Vegetarian. Nestle produces its 2-minute instant noodles called Maggi in vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian (Chicken) variants to cater to all segments of the market. Females/ Housewives as decision makers Women in India are the major decision makers for all consumer purchases even though it might be men who do the actual buying. Ultimately it is the women who use most of the consumer products, Washing Soap, Detergent, Cosmetics etc. It is therefore important to understand the needs of the female customers before coming up with a marketing strategy. Rise of the Middle Class The major drivers of the Indian Economy are, without a doubt, people from the Middle Class. The Indian middle class has been growing and according to studies by McKinsey it will grow to 40-60% of the population. The Low-Income classes hardly have the purchasing power to drive an economy while Higher Classes are more into personalized buying rather than standardized retail shopping. The Middle Class, on the other hand, has become more empowered. With an upswing in educational status, decrease in unemployment, and rise in average annual incomes, the Middle Class has higher disposable incomes which it uses to increase its standard of living by purchasing more and more. This is virtually a retailers dream come true! Brand Loyalty versus Desire for new options Traditionally, Indian customers have been very loyal to their brand. We all would have seen their grandparents, or granduncles/aunts buying the same brand of Toothpaste or Hair Oil from the market even though better products exist on the shelves. This was very helpful for established brands to retain their customer and posed difficulties (in terms of entry barriers) for upcoming and small firms. This mentality is changing fast. The new generation, or the Gen-Y, is very brand conscious and evaluates all its options before making any purchase. They keep in mind their notion of Cool before buying a thing as simple as a toothbrush. Brand Loyalty is a thing of the past. Kids and Teens today will change their brand as fast as the wind. Shift from Kirana Shops to Large retailers The increase in the number of options that are available to the consumer, in terms of brand, product quality, colors, packaging and what not, has created another paradigm shift in consumer behavior. Gone are the days of the Kirana Shops with limited varieties of products stored on their shelves. People these days want to have the entire range of products in front of their eyes so that they can pick and choose. They want to experience the product by holding it in their hands before making the final decision whether to buy or not. This has created solid opportunity for FMCG companies so that they can showcase their product and make sure their product catches the customers eye. They no longer have to be at the mercy of established players for market share. Durability as a necessary quality Indian customers have traditionally desired durable and rugged products. They buy products with the intention of long time use and do not believe much in use-and-throw items. For example, it is only recently that the use and throw paper cups and plates are catching on. Indians generally dont prefer them as they find them to be more expensive. Another example would be the case of the Nokia-1100 phone, marketed with the tagline Made for India. Nokia 1100 was a sturdy phone, waterproof rubber coated and stain resistant, ideal for Indian farmers and truck drivers who do rough work every day and stand a chance of spoiling their phone. Larger/Joint Families and Bulk Purchases Families in India are larger compared to their international counterparts. Some of the households run as joint families. The major effect that this has is bulk buying. People will buy goods for the entire family in one shot. This means that companies need to come up with large, super saver packs for their products. On the other hand, there exist a significant number of students, bachelors and small households that prefer smaller packaging and refills. The challenge for firms is to establish the right package size and the amount to produce in each size. Impulsive buying With increased disposable income due to higher salaries, newly earning professionals (people straight out of college) tend to do a lot of impulsive shopping i.e. buying something that is not required only because it caught your eye. With more and more youngsters joining the impulsive buyers brigade, India is a sellers heaven. Adapting to The Indian context Core Product Basic Product Expected Product Augmented Product Potential Product India, as a market, poses unique opportunities and challenges to companies contemplating an entry. With a rapidly growing middle class and a promising growth rate, India is a lucrative destination for companies facing saturation in demand back home. A foray in Indian market, on the other hand, is not without its own perils. Companies who have ignored the unique Indian context in its marketing strategy have failed miserably while those who have given due attention to its type and taste have reaped enormous profits. Following are some of the factors which differentiate Indian context from the global one and must be taken into account by companies before entering Indian markets: India lives in villages: With 85% of India living in villages having about half of Indias buying potential, a company planning an entry in India(particularly FMCG) has to strategize for rural marketing. It cant think of succeeding by focusing on metros alone. All 4Ps need to be customized while tapping this market: Product: As per Kotler, there are various levels of product offering as one adds value to the core product (shown in the adj. fig) With low per capita incomes and a widening economic disparity between urban and rural India, the rural customer is highly price conscious and looks for the basic features. So, only basic or expected product should be marketed in rural India. Moreover the rural customer looks for durability and sturdiness in the product Promotion: An advertisement designed to promote a product in a metro or an urban set up needs to be customized to rural audience for it be effective in appeal to rural customers. Moreover, traditional media needs to be employed to make the advertisement reach rural audience. The use of numerous languages and dialects across the country warrants further customization of the promotion program .Literacy level being very low in rural India, conveying the message to the rural customer requires an entirely different approach. Pricing: With a highly price sensitive population, companies usually resort to aggressive pricing to succeed in rural markets. They yearn to achieve huge volumes to offset the low margins. Place: Distribution poses a serious challenge while marketing in rural India. To make more ground-contacts with the rural customers some channels which can be used are RMVS (Rural Marketing Vehicles) which are basically company delivery vans which are used both for promotion and sales. As per Indian Market Research Bureau, annual sales at melas in Indian rural countryside is around 3500 crore which offer a lucrative marketing ground for companies having rural aspirations. Infrastructure: As compared to western countries, India has a poor logistics infrastructure posing as a serious supply chain bottleneck. The distribution system has to be adapted to take care of this constraint .Inventory levels down the value chain cannot be allowed to go too low. While companies can reap the benefits of keeping a lean inventory in countries where there is a strong logistics network. By proper use of technology like monitoring POS data and analyzing it centrally, however, can give a competitive advantage in such situations. Other infrastructural issues include power deficit and poor internet penetration. The Cultural Aspect: As per Carl Jung Culture is the collective unconscious that is built over centuries and passed from generation to generation. Failure to appreciate the cultural differences between markets can make even behemoths to fail miserably(e.g. Disneyland in Germany).To complicate the situation more, the heterogeneity in India with respect to culture is immense and moving from one corner of the country to another is like changing a nation. No doubt there are commonalities as well. Let us evaluate India on Hofstedes cultural dimensions(which by large is the most widely accepted model for studying cultural differences) All these differences have huge implications on marketing strategy of a company e.g. an advertisement designed for a population having high masculinity index may not appeal an audience with low masculinity Index. Segmentation and Demographics: The usual demographic bases of segmentation like age, income, education etc. progressed to non demographic bases like values ,tastes and preferences .Rediscovering the elementary bases of segmentation taking into account the ground level realities can work wonders instead e.g. Introduction of Emami Fair and Handsome for men was based on the discovery that men were using the fairness cream meant for women and hence there was an unmet demand. Another example is the introduction of Allen Solly Women by Madura Garments based

Saturday, January 18, 2020

In time of war, actions not morally acceptable become acceptable Essay

We live in an imperfect world where human interactions breeds frictions occasioned by participation of different individuals in matters of society, economics and even religious inclinations of the different masses. Human beings have voluntarily or involuntarily found themselves in different areas of life due to their races or ideologies and consequently have had to act in line with a certain set of belief. Therefore this has bred differences in how a different society approaches issues relating to both governance and interaction and lack of consensus among individuals and sometimes groups within and without have led to violence. This violence is sometimes political and involves a set of organized military groups fighting for a certain goal that is usually political in nature. War is rough on the participants and mostly on innocent civilians caught in the middle of the chaos. The questions that strongly begs a just answer is â€Å"can there be a just war. † Hedge (2002) claims that in essence there is not much difference between the U S government and Alqueda arguing that despite what motives drives them to violence both the outcome is death of innocent civilians. However there are those who feel that to agree with Hedge would be to deny that there cannot be moral reasons to go to war and that the presuppositions behind the just war theory are fallacious and misguiding. In this regard it would be equal to agreeing that no reason should drive a country to wage war on another or even that terror groups must be allowed to exploit the weakness of less able nations in order to bring terror to perceived enemies. In my opinion such a stand is untenable and unrealistic and a way to avoid taking responsibility in accordance to the natural laws of justice that guarantees freedom and rights of individuals (Zupan, 2004). It is therefore important to highlight that it is hypocritical to deny that a party might be justified to wage war to counter similar aggressiveness or as way of stopping gross violations against fellow human beings. All human beings have a right to life is a clearly accepted fact and anything that contravenes such a fact would ordinarily be considered immoral and against fundamental pillars of justice, rights and freedoms. However whereby a war has been taken as to being justified then a waiver is taken in order to grant the involved parties the right to take away the lives of those perceived to be the enemies. In addition the loss of civilian life in the course of such a war is simply taken to be the costs of bringing such changes as necessitate that war. Hedge actually accuses Washington of stooping so low as to use death as a means of expressing its dissatisfaction with certain issues (Hedge, 2002). In other wars certain groups of people who previously viewed as morally incorrect might receive a change of perceptions simply because they direct their atrocities to the perceived enemy. In this regard the common phrase that an enemy of my enemy is my enemy becomes true. There are those who would argue for the sovereignty of nations and that a state has a right from external interference. In ordinary times such a status applies and there are clear efforts to observe and even promote the status quo. However in times of war sovereign borders are breached and this usually leads to the removal of leadership or occupation of such state. Hedge (2002) however seeks to point out that while he is not a war supporter, that it is sometimes important to use force to counter a force that is much immoral as compared to the countering force. It is therefore important then that we must understand that we have a moral responsibility to take care not to ignore or indeed breach the fundamental rights of citizens as we engage in war. Hedges, C. (2002). War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning. New York: Anchor books. Zupan, D. (2004). War, Morality and Autonomy. London: Ashgate publishings.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Abigail progressed Essay

Abigail is the former mistress of John Proctor, and also the previous maid of the Proctor residence. Abigail is the niece of Revered Parris and attempted to practise witchcraft, only to be caught by her uncle. This lead to the arrival of several other characters to precede in the Salem witch trials, where Abigail and her friends act as witnesses. In the beginning of the play, she seems to be dishonest in admitting to witchcraft. When she talks to Parris, she attempts to use Tituba as a scapegoat. â€Å"But we never conjured spirits†¦ She always sings her Barbados songs, and we dance. † Abigail tells this to Parris to attempt to clear her name, as she and her friends are accused of witchcraft by the Reverend. She might be thinking that if she persuades her Uncle long enough, the civil blood between the two would make Parris believe that she is innocent, yet Parris is already concerned over the reputation she is getting from a remark that Elizabeth had supposedly made. â€Å"†¦ she comes so rarely to church this year for she will not sit so close to something soiled†¦ † This has one of the biggest in the opening Act as this sends a message to the audience of what Abigail’s character is based around, and what she is truly like. In my opinion, Miller describes Abigail’s character in this manner as he is trying to contrast her character with that of Elizabeth, in the sense of honesty, as how Elizabeth is described in a later discussion between Proctor and Danforth. Abigail is shown to be a sweet young woman, caring for her relatives. This is shown in the book, which would make you believe that she is innocent. However, in the film of â€Å"The Crucible,† Abigail is shown dancing at the beginning of the first segment. This changes your perspective of the character Abigail, due to the relatively bad thing she is performing, which back in those days and what many people believe even now to be a sin. â€Å"In her life sir, she never lied†¦ my wife cannot lie† Therefore Abigail is said to lie a great deal, whilst Elizabeth hardly ever lies. Abigail is quick to change her attitude to the girls, intimidating them into a worrisome state. She speaks to her so called ‘friends’ about the consequences of telling of the witchery they attempted to perform. She uses a natural power she has to strike terror in the hearts of her friends. She also shows how maniacal and ruthless she can be. â€Å"Let either of you breathe a word†¦ and I will come in the black of some terrible night and I will bring a pointy reckoning that will shudder you. † Abigail says this to her group of girls as she aims to strike fear in the eye of her followers, stating that if they were to betray her, she would come back and haunt them. And as she explains how she has seen murders occur before her very own eyes, she exclaims she is able to murder any victim she desires. This affects the audience, as in the beginning of the play, they observe a sweet, young lady transform so quickly into this vicious, desperate girl. I think Miller quickly turns Abigail into this enraged character as now the audience can see just how she really acts, behind the faces of her elders. He is successful in doing this as just a few minutes in the plays time before this, as she talks to Parris; she seems to be trying to show Parris of how considerate she is of his feelings by asking him to rest. â€Å"Uncle, you’ve prayed since midnight. Why do you not go down and -† He shows her speaking with Parris in a manor which a child would talk to their own parents, contrasting the way she talks to her friends, which I think in her opinion is people who she has power over. Miller attempts to show a classic stereotype of a distressed person in a forlorn situation when she is seen talking to her friends. Abigail does have a soft spot in her heart for one person – John Proctor. We, the audience hear that John and Abigail have had an affair. In Proctors mind, it is now clearly over between them. â€Å"I’ll not be comin’ for you no more† But Abigail does not see their relationship this way, and thinks that they should be together. â€Å"Give me a word, John. A soft word. † She says this to entice him towards her, in a manner of flirtation. This affects the audience by letting them know who the one man Abigail is in love with is, and how she is willing to re-kindle her relationship with Proctor, even if it means to make Elizabeth a divorcee. I think Miller writes about Abigail in this way to show the audience just how her character resembles that of a stereotype of a young, spoilt girl who will do anything to get what she wants, but never what she deserves. Abigail becomes quick to hand the blame of practising witchcraft over to Tituba, whilst she and her friends knew that it was her lead the witchery into the stage of being â€Å"worshippers of Lucifer. † When Hale and Parris came to confront Abigail about the witchery, the pressure became too much for her, and blurted out the only persons name she thought she could get away with. â€Å"Did you call the Devil last night? † â€Å"I never called him! Tituba†¦ Tituba†¦ † Hale and Parris are quick to believe the story of Abigail, calling for the presence of Tituba. But at the same they time, they do begin to fear the safety of Abigail from the Devil. â€Å"Have you sold yourself to Lucifer? † â€Å"I never sold myself! I’m a good girl! I’m a proper girl! † She probably done this to show all of her elders that she is a good Christian girl, and lied to protect herself from a punishment and to also save her Uncle’s reputation as the towns Reverend. This shows just how ruthless Abigail can be, and to what lengths she would go to bring her own happiness, even if it meant causing pain and suffering to others. I think Miller done this to be constant in Abigail’s character, showing she can be deceiving and sly. This also shows throughout Act 1, Abigail has maintained a constant character. In the duration of Act Two, Abigail didn’t make an appearance, but she was, however, talked about a lot by the other characters, especially by the Proctors. It also appears that she tried to frame Elizabeth Proctor of witchcraft, by cleverly, yet deceivingly sticking a needle into her in the same position a needle was in Elizabeth’s doll, acting as if Elizabeth’s â€Å"poppet† was a voodoo doll. But this incident isn’t seen, but only talked about by Cheever to Hale, Proctor and Elizabeth.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Differences Between Men And Women - 1590 Words

Gender differences in memory Introduction There are many differences when it comes to comparing men and women. There are not only physical appearance differences but there are also internal working mechanisms of their bodies that are different. Men and women differ genetically, physiologically, and psychologically (Loftus, Banji, Schooler, 1987). Not only does battle of the sexes occur in real world situations, scientists argue back and forth as to which should be superior in terms of cognitive functioning and especially memory ability. Researchers have determined that memory ability may be influenced by differences in interest and expectations along with physiology capabilities (Loftus et al., 1987). It is also believed that cognitive style may play a role in what one remembers. Cognitive style is the psychological differences in a person’s manner of cognitive functioning particularly acquiring and processing information (Kozhevnikov, 2007). During early childhood, memory starts to develop by way of conversa tion with others primarily caregivers and parents (Dahl, 2014). It is believed that children there were asked for more detail in their story’s later in life could recall those earlier memories in more detail. Research has shown that parents spend more time introducing new information with girls and with boys more time talking about what to do with their feelings (Dahl, 2014). This could be in part because culture along with society tends to have genderShow MoreRelatedThe Differences Between Men And Women1171 Words   |  5 PagesHave you ever wondered what the differences are between men and women psychologically, and biologically? Men and Women are extremely different in many ways. Men act in certain ways and express themselves differently from how women do. 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Men use short direct speech, while women use indirect dialogue. Therefore, when genders meet up there’s a gap in communication. Men and women unconsciously communicate differently in numerous ways, so by understanding each other’s