Saturday, May 23, 2020

Advantages of being the first mover in E-commerce.

E-commerce (electronic-commerce) refers to business over the Internet. With the growth of commerce on the Internet and the Web, e-commerce often refers to purchases from online stores on the Web, otherwise knows as e-commerce Web sites. The e-commerce marketplace is intensely and savagely competitive. Mellahi and Johnson (2000) noted that major sustainable competitive advantages are almost non-existent. That means that firms market advantage such as economies of scale are no longer enough to make a firm secure in the e-commerce marketplace. According to McCrohan (2003), the e-commerce market has raised the level of market dynamics such that firms face constant challenges, disequilibrium and change. This also means that firms must adapt†¦show more content†¦Thus, waiting and watching the first mover in order to free ride on the technology or other innovations translate into automatically losing market share. Being first to market and continuous innovation have enabled Amazon to achieve a highly recognizable and trusted brand name (Economist, 2000). This is not surprising given the fact that the company spends approximately 40 per cent of its revenue on brand building due to its firm belief that customers first and foremost look for trusted brands when they deal online (Margolis, 1999). In addition, is customer centric. Jeff Bezos, founder and manager of Amazon, reported that Amazons vision is that we want to be the worlds most customer-centric company, that we focus increasingly on trying to get the customer experience right. Within that, we want to build a place where people can come and discover anything they might want to buy online (Business Week, 1999). The company marketing expenses increased threefold between 1998 and 1999. is seeking to capitalize on its brand and diversify its business to become the best place to buy, find and discover any product or servic e online. Indeed, the company claims that its online diversification strategy into other product categoryShow MoreRelatedAmazon. History and Background1511 Words   |  7 Pagess largest non-travel e-commerce business. Once the website was established as a bookseller, it was a logical step into the sale of other entertainment products, such as music and films, and also into the hardware used to deliver home entertainment. Amazon was a pioneer in the use of software that monitors each online customer s preferences, enabling the company to suggest other products that may be of interest to the individual, either on their personalized web page or via e-mail. A book customerRead MoreThinking Outside the Covers of a Book: The Rise and the Fall of Amazon vs. Borders in the Online World1664 Words   |  7 PagesThe demise of Borders, once the most viable rival to the behemoth book chain Barnes Noble could be read as a symptom of this cultural phenomenon. However, another of Barnes Nobles rivals, that of is thriving. introduced a new model of profitability for online retailers, first beginning with books and then branching out into digital books and other forms of goods and services. By some book enthusiasts, Borders was much beloved. Though it was a chain, with hundreds of locationsRead MoreAmazons Competitive Analysis1296 Words   |  6 Pagescompetition. Due to the shift of focus for Amazon, it has become the Earths biggest anything store. Its competitors have expanded from just online book retailers Barnes and Nobles and Borders to top audio retailers and online auction house Amazon has an overall lead of 40% market share against the other online retail firms. Their international business has more than doubled over the past 2 years Amazons primary value chain includes purchasing/sourcing, marketing, distributionRead MoreSeminar Paper on Strategies to Achieve Market Leadership: the Example of Amazon13422 Words   |  54 Pagesin Electronic Commerce ................ 1 2.1 Value Chains and Actors in EC............................................................. 1 2.2 Principles for Success in Electronic Commerce.................................... 3 2.3 Porter’s Branch Structure Analysis applied to EC Markets ................... 4 2.4 Context Factors and Value Creation Potentials in EC Markets ............. 8 2.5 First Mover Advantage and the Role of the Pioneer ............................. 9 3 – The Road toRead MoreThe Globalization of Amazon Essay4890 Words   |  20 PagesGlobalization of Zheng, Li # 5263512 Yitong, Fu # 5263587 Xuanyu, Hou # 5263629 Gupta, Radheshyam # 5072517 Jiagen, Hao # 5287701 Hang, Xu # 5129804 MBAB 5P22 Section 01 April 1, 2013 * Introduction, Inc. was founded by Jeff Bezos out of his own garage in July 1994 under the name of Cadabra. It went online in as in 1995. Since that time it has never looked back and is now the worlds largest  online retailer. It  is an American  multinational  electronicRead MoreStrategic Development (Longitudinal) - Amazon4398 Words   |  18 Pagesï » ¿ A LONGITUDINAL STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF AMAZON.COM RECENT PAST OF AMAZON.COM Jeff Bezos in Seattle, USA, founded in 1994 (Bloomberg Businessweek, 2012). Prior to, Bezos was senior vice president for D.E Shaw (a Wall Street investment bank) where his major role was to find potential Internet companies to invest in. As soon as he quit his job, he decided to move to Seattle, where he created an online platform, accessible to customersRead MoreAmazon Strategic Hrm3095 Words   |  13 Pages........................................................................................... 3 3. Industry Analysis............................................................................................................................ 4 3.1 E-commerce Industry Analysis ................................................................................................. 4 3.2 Book Retailing Industry ..................................................................................................Read MoreBusiness Strategy of Amazon: A Summary1794 Words à ‚  |  8 Pages|Bangalore Management Academy | |Business Strategy – Case Study 2 | |Amazon.Com | Submitted to: Mr. Nirmaalya.B.Biswas Dr. Amrita Saxena Submitted by: Jainie Jose BLR0906032007 Clareena Shafali Serrao BLR0906032032 Prashant AdhangleRead MoreEssay on Amazon Case Analysis4440 Words   |  18 Case Analysis Internal External Matrix, Matrix Analysis and TOWS Summary, and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix Executive Summary This case analysis serves the purpose to provide an analytical framework to evaluate from an internal and external perspective, and to provide strategic direction based upon the internal and external evaluation. The case will begin with an introduction to Introduction/Background Jeffrey Bezos, formerly a senior viceRead MorePest Analysis3657 Words   |  15 PagesTransdisciplinarity Cognition Vol. 15, Issue 1/2012 252-258 E-Commerce across United States of America: Andreea Nicoleta DONICI, PhD Student, Andreea MAHA, PhD Student, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, ROMANIA Ion IGNAT, Liviu-George MAHA Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, ROMANIA Abstract: has been during the time one of the most important leading force in ecommerce

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

5 Study Secrets to Ace Your Exams

Most students hate tests. They hate the feeling of trying to remember the answer to a question, worrying that they focused on the wrong material, and waiting to receive their results. Whether you learn at a traditional school or study from the comfort of your own home, chances are you’ll have to sit through many test-taking experiences. But there are a few tricks you can learn now to avoid the worry before you’re in the heat of the moment. Give these five proven study tips a try and see how much better you feel during your next exam. 1. Survey your textbook or workbook before you read. Take a couple of minutes to find the glossary, index, study questions and other important information. Then, when you sit down to study, you’ll know where to find the answers you are looking for. Make sure you read any study questions before you read the chapter. These questions let you know what you can probably expect in any upcoming tests, papers or projects. 2. Attack your textbook with sticky notes. As you read, summarize (write down the main points in just a few sentences) each section of the chapter on a post-it note. After you have read the entire chapter and summarized each section, go back and review the post-it notes. Reading the post-it notes is an easy and efficient way to review information and, because each note is already in the section it summarizes, you can easily find the information you need. 3. Use a graphic organizer to take notes when you read. A graphic organizer is a form you can use to organize information. As you read, fill out the form with important information. Then, use your graphic organizer to help you study for the test. Try using the Cornell notes worksheet. Not only does this organizer let you record important terms, ideas, notes and summaries, it also lets you quiz yourself on that information by folding the answers upside down. 4. Make your own practice test. After you finish reading, pretend you are a professor who is writing a test for the chapter. Review the material you just read and make up your own practice test. Include all vocabulary words, study questions (they’re usually at the beginning or end of the chapter), and highlighted words you can find, as well as any other information you think is important. Take the test you’ve created to see if you remember the information. If not, go back and study some more. 5. Create visual flashcards. Flashcards aren’t just for primary students. Many college students find them useful as well. Before you take a test, make flashcards that will help you remember important terms, people, places and dates. Use one 3-by-5-inch index for each term. On the front of the card, write down the term or question you need to answer and draw a picture that will help you remember it. This will help ensure that you grasp the study material as you’ll find that it’s almost impossible to sketch something you don’t really understand. On the back of the card write down the definition of the term or the answer to the question. Review these cards and quiz yourself before the actual test.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly Free Essays

string(70) " the Methodist congregations to spread their radical political ideas\." The eighteenth century is commonly viewed by historians as a period of decline for the Anglican establishment which suffered increasing losses in its authority over local parishes and failing to respond adequately to the changing society of the early industrial age and challenges over the nature of religion and its role in the lives of individuals. In the 1740s, Samuel Wesley and his sons began to preach outside the confines of the Church, advocating a more voluntary approach to religious devotion and encouraging increased involvement of laymen in the work of the parish. Methodism was effectively born out of societies set up to integrate the church into the community, but in carrying voluntarism to its logical conclusion, argues Gilbert, such a movement would naturally come into conflict with the establishment by offering an alternative to the prescribed methods of religious practise and undermining the ministerial authority and organising machinery of the Church. We will write a custom essay sample on Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although the Wesley family were conservative Tories and John Wesley, who was to become the leading Methodist figure, always expressed a keen desire to remain within Anglicanism, he told a inaugural conference in 1744 that Methodism would either leave the whole church or â€Å"be thrust out of it† Whether the Methodists were in essence a radical or conservative group was at the time, and remains a much debated topic. In an essay on Methodism, Dissent and Political Stability2, Gilbert argues that it was in fact both. Methodism was a means of taking a stand against prescribed religion and the status quo of social organisation through the withdrawal of status respect and assertion of freedom. Methodism was in effect a radical means of political and social protest in an era of new ideas and social instability, epitomised abroad by the violent revolutions in France, and yet the movement was unobtrusive in its politics and the moderate nature of this radicalism had a stabilising effect on society, acting as a â€Å"safety valve† that contained tension and helped avoid the polarisation of opinions. Looking at the religious history of other European nations, Methodism is quite the anomaly, a dissenting movement, cast out of the Anglican Church that eventually serves to prop up the traditional order. Weakness in the Anglican establishment dated back to the reformation, which had been a break away from authority from Rome, but had also meant an increase in secular authority over the ecclesiastical, through the judicial courts, some tithe taxes and rights of patronage. Though the clerical influence in national politics and in local parishes was still strong, it was no longer as an independent body, but in conjunction with secular authorities. Loss of influence in the upper echelons of power, with monarchs of differing faith on the throne and the abbots losing their majority in the Lords was coupled with strain on authority in the parishes through lack of adequate funding or dynamism. The demographic boom of the late eighteenth century and the breakdown of the traditional parish based organisation of ancien regime society with the increase in manufacturing towns left many outside the network of pastoral oversight, as Ward notes, this and toleration laws paved the way for eager dissenters to exert influence3. However, the first half of the century is more commonly characterised by a mood of religious apathy. Numbers attending Anglican services were declining, but Gilbert argues, Protestant dissent was also in a state of atrophy in 1740. Looking at statistics, this could be seen as a dramatic turning point in the history of religious dissent, but it must be remembered that after new toleration acts were passed it became necessary for all groups to register, nevertheless, this was a period when old dissenting movements were being surpassed by the new evangelicals, who could serve the community where the Anglican church could no longer cope. Naturally there was a certain discontinuity of dissent, with different traditions declining and growing in different patterns across the country. The chapel movement was one that responded to local needs, in some areas lay societies along evangelical lines were even encouraged by the local clergy, but the most prominent groups inevitably sprang up where the church was least effective and inevitably would become a source of conflict with the establishment. The evangelical revival of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was above all a popular movement, and with no central driving force, it is difficult to define the limits of the movement. Dissenters within the orthodoxy of the Church had existed before, but a newfound zeal, enthusiastic conversion methods and a more coherent programme now developed into a single, if multiform, religious phenomenon. Although there were divisions between Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists and Independents, they were not fundamental. All relied on lay preachers and the centrality of village communities to spread their message of voluntary piety, based around the family and spiritual equality, whereby all could receive salvation through faith and good works. Methodism can perhaps be characterised by its system of connexion networks that linked dissenting groups across the country. Wesley had hoped to unite his movement through the Anglican ministers and in 1764 had sent fifty letters appealing for a unity of purpose, but receiving only three replies, realised he would have to unite and organise his followers outside the clergy. The strength of the movement however, was not in a system of alliances, but its dynamism. Methodism was a movement that spread rapidly through expansionist missionary societies, and Wesley’s followers breached the movement further away from the church by demanding that its preachers should be able to give communion. A 1793 conference voted that members of a society who were unanimous in their desire to receive the sacrament from their preacher might do so. Ward questions whether this was a case of the preachers following the flock, or the scheming of radical ministers to use the Methodist congregations to spread their radical political ideas. You read "Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly" in category "Papers" Samuel Bradburn was one such minister who introduced ideas of unbounded liberty and the Rights of Man into his sermons, but he shunned Kilham, an even more defiant political Methodist, casting doubt on any suggestion of a central political aim. In the 1790s, social tensions were reaching boiling point. Evangelical societies attracted dissenters at all social levels, even at court, where many independent politicians, clergymen and intellectuals deserted George III and headed a campaign as a Unitarian group for reforms to free trade and end slavery, believing in free enquiry and social progress. Among the lower social orders there was a backlash against the increasing number of dissenters and riots broke out, prompted by food shortages but also calling for â€Å"Church and King† and were largely unhindered by the clergy and magistrates of the old order. It is important to remember that while the growth of evangelical movements was significant, it still only affected a small proportion of the population, with many remaining ambivalent towards new ideals of piety and man others choosing to remain firmly within the Anglican fold. For some, traditional means of expressing discontent were still favoured. Davidoff sees the Evangelical movement as a largely middle class phenomenon. This was a rapidly expanding social group that needed to form their identity. He argues that a sense of religious belonging was provided by the various evangelical movements became a part of middle class culture and the success of the movement can be credited to its ability to fill this need. Traditional church practise did not involve participation from the lay community, and while the middle classes were a group with little political power, there role was gradually becoming more like that of the traditional gentry, as Lords devolved their duties in a practise of stewardship. Dissenting evangelical groups formed a basis of a middle class community as well as a middle class culture. The religious focus is undeniably meritocratic in tone; that salvation was open to all through their own piety. Davidoff also believes that there was a notion that this piety could give individuals strength to bare hostility from others, as the new middle classes may well have faced in the years of hardship and social tension at the end of the eighteenth century. The central importance of the family crossed denominations, another middle class value. The ideal was of the home as a moral haven from the amoral world of the business market. This haven was created by women, who were viewed as naturally more pious than men. The concepts of masculine and feminine were being transposed into more distinct social roles, each with their own responsibilities. Men were the material providers of the family and women’s role was to create a moral home for her husband and children, domestic seclusion was a moral ideal and some serious evangelicals even shunned the pleasures of sport and the theatre in favour of this domesticity. Women did have increased prominence in church life, in some denominations they could even be ministers, but overall, the new movements were still male dominated. In some areas women may even have lost influence, where before they could have performed duties of clerks where necessary, roles were now more often formalised into those that were acceptable for women and those that were not. The evangelical community gave the middle class a forum to profess their beliefs and help to form their own culture and community. Dissenting groups were most prominent in new manufacturing towns and much of their establishment can be seen as benefiting the middle classes. They set up church schools and welfare societies, seeing their community almost s an extension of their family that need to be provided for. Schools were central to the evangelical movement, supporting the middle class love of reading and reflection as alternative entertainments. Indeed it was often the case that the school came before the chapel, as was the case in Bollington, a manufacturing town in the Northwest. Although initially non-denominational, the school soon became dominated by the Methodists. But importantly, the erection of such public buildings was not decided on by the preachers, but went before an appeal to the town, in tune with democratic principals. The practise of the Sunday school was an important means of gaining support among the locals, as many sent their children to work in factories at an early age and this would still give them a chance to learn to read. The work of evangelicals within their communities through charity and education may have stunted working class resentment, but Davidoff asserts that they still tended to stay away from Church. Gilberts sees the evangelicals as targeting the lower echelons of society, corroding the image of the lower orders as simple minded and maybe thus giving cause for concern to the ruling classes, but it is probable that these are two differing views of what was essentially the same social group, seen as the lower orders by contemporaries, but viewed by some historians, in the pattern of social evolution, as the emerging middle classes. The end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries saw a demographic boom, centred around new manufacturing towns. It was the early years of the industrial age and the changing structure of society had new needs that the state and church could not provide for. Looking abroad for a point of comparison, French society, with its firmly established monarchy and church was thrust into a violent revolution that was to remove both. In England, the less powerful position occupied by the monarchy and church could be seen as perhaps what saved them from a similar fate. Dissenting movements had been allowed to develop that were then to serve as a moderating force. There was much confusion in the late eighteenth century as to Methodists and their significance. The movement grew further and faster than other evangelical societies, and what Smyth called â€Å"Christian godliness without Christian organisation† in 1795 was attacked by others as having too much organisation and followers were subject to too much pastoral oversight, threatening the formation of a radical political force. 5 Indeed, Sidney Pollard and Robert Southerly were of the view that revolution was imminent. With hindsight, historians like Halevy have argued that there was nothing for the state to fear in the rise of Methodism, but contemporary powers would not have been able to see the larger picture of changing society and the development of a middle-class and so the movement may have been forced into its unobtrusive political stance where perhaps more radical beliefs were deep-seated. Jabez Bunting, a radical Methodist figure after the death of Wesley, saw the movement as wide, but not deep. He was relatively apolitical, but was keen to preserve the liberties that Methodism had benefited from in the face of conservative reaction to social tensions and revolution in Europe. But the evangelical revival, viewed with historical hindsight is indeed a political movement, the energies of the chapel communities were a force that resisted to reactionism and later advocated reforms, but after 1850 the dynamism of the movement had dwindled, as the social tensions of the age eased. How to cite Methodism, the most astonishing eruption in the eighteenth century history of religion, was an anomaly, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb Essay Example For Students

Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb Essay Word Count: 5516The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through radiation exposure. We here at Outlaw Labs do not recommend using this file beyond the realm of casual or academic curiosity. ============================================================================ -+ Table of Contents +- I. The History of the A). Development (The Manhattan Project) B). Detonation 1). Hiroshima 2). Nagasaki 3). Byproducts of atomic detonations 4). Blast Zones II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion A). Fission (A-Bomb) Fusion (H-Bomb) B). U-235, U-238 and Plutonium III. The Mechanism of The Bomb - A). Altimeter B). Air Pressure Detonator C). Detonating Head(s) D). Explosive Charge(s) E). Neutron Deflector F). Uranium Plutonium G). Lead Shield H). Fuses IV. The Diagram of The Bomb A). The Uranium Bomb B). The Plutonium Bomb ============================================================================ File courtesy of Outlaw Labs I. The History of the Atomic Bomb On August 2nd 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known only then as the Manhattan Project. Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb. The most complicated issue to be addressed was the production of ample amounts of `enriched uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, Uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from Uranium ore to Uranium metal is 500:1. An additional drawback is that the 1 part of Uranium that is finally refined from the ore consists of over 99% Uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make it even more difficult, U-235 and U-238 are precisely similar in their chemical makeup. This proved to be as much of a challenge as separating a solution of sucrose from a solution of glucose. No ordinary chemical extraction could separate the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238. Several scientists at Columbia University managed to solve this dilemma. A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H. C. Urey, along with his associates and colleagues at Columbia University, devised a system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion. Following this process, Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes. Following the first two processes, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier non-fissionable U-238 by their mass. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission. For more information on these procedures of refining Uranium, see Section 3. Over the course of six years, ranging from 1939 to 1945, more than 2 billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining Uranium and putting together a working bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Among these people who unleashed the power of the atomic bomb was J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer was the major force behind the Manhattan Project. He literally ran the show and saw to it that all of the great minds working on this project made their brainstorms work. He oversaw the entire project from its conception to its completion. Finally the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out whether or not The Gadget (code-named as such during its development) was either going to be the colossal dud of the century or perhaps end the war. It all came down to a fateful morning of midsummer, 1945. At 5:29:45 (Mountain War Time) on July 16th, 1945, in a white blaze that stretched from the basin of the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico to the still-dark skies, The Gadget ushered in the Atomic Age. The light of the explosion then turned orange as the atomic fireball began shooting upwards at 360 feet per second, reddening and pulsing as it cooled. The characteristic mushroom cloud of radioactive vapor materialized at 30,000 feet. Beneath the cloud, all that remained of the soil at the blast site were fragments of jade green radioactive glass. All of this caused by the heat of the reaction. The brilliant light from the detonation pierced the early morning skies with such intensity that residents from a faraway neighboring community would swear that the sun came up twice that day. Even more astonishing is that a blind girl saw the flash 120 miles away. Upon witnessing the explosion, reactions among the people who created it were mixed. Isidor Rabi felt that the equilibrium in nature had been upset as if humankind had become a threat to the world it inhabited. J. Robert Oppenheimer, though ecstatic about the success of the project, quoted a remembered fragment from Bhagavad Gita. I am become Death, he said, the destroyer of worlds. Ken Bainbridge, the test director, told Oppenheimer, Now were all sons of bitches. Several participants, shortly after viewing the results, signed petitions against loosing the monster they had created, but their protests fell on deaf ears. As it later turned out, the Jornada del Muerto of New Mexico was not the last site on planet Earth to experience an atomic explosion. As many know, atomic bombs have been used only twice in warfare. The first and foremost blast site of the atomic bomb is Hiroshima. A Uranium bomb (which weighed in at over 4 1/2 tons) nicknamed Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima August 6th, 1945. The Aioi Bridge, one of 81 bridges connecting the seven-branched delta of the Ota River, was the aiming point of the bomb. Ground Zero was set at 1,980 feet. At 0815 hours, the bomb was dropped from the Enola Gay. It missed by only 800 feet. At 0816 hours, in the flash of an instant, 66,000 people were killed and 69,000 people were injured by a 10 kiloton atomic explosion. The point of total vaporization from the blast measured one half of a mile in diameter. Total destruction ranged at one mile in diameter. Severe blast damage carried as far as two miles in diameter. At two and a half miles, everything flammable in the area burned. The remaining area of the blast zone was riddled with serious blazes that stretched out to the final edge at a little over three miles in diameter. See diagram below for blast ranges from the atomic blast. On August 9th 1945, Nagasaki fell to the same treatment as Hiroshima. Only this time, a Plutonium bomb nicknamed Fat Man was dropped on the city. Even though the Fat Man missed by over a mile and a half, it still leveled nearly half the city. Nagasakis population dropped in one split-second from 422,000 to 383,000. 39,000 were killed, over 25,000 were injured. That blast was less than 10 kilotons as well. Estimates from physicists who have studied each atomic explosion state that the bombs that were used had utilized only 1/10th of 1 percent of their respective explosive capabilities. While the mere explosion from an atomic bomb is deadly enough, its destructive ability doesnt stop there. Atomic fallout creates another hazard as well. The rain that follows any atomic detonation is laden with radioactive particles. Many survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts succumbed to radiation poisoning due to this occurance. The atomic detonation also has the hidden lethal surprise of affecting the future generations of those who live through it. Leukemia is among the greatest of afflictions that are passed on to the offspring of survivors. While the main purpose behind the atomic bomb is obvious, there are many by-products that have been brought into consideration in the use of all weapons atomic. With one small atomic bomb, a massive areas communications, travel and machinery will grind to a dead halt due to the EMP (Electro- Magnetic Pulse) that is radiated from a high-altitude atomic detonation. These high-level detonations are hardly lethal, yet they deliver a serious enough EMP to scramble any and all things electronic ranging from copper wires all the way up to a computers CPU within a 50 mile radius. At one time, during the early days of The Atomic Age, it was a popular notion that one day atomic bombs would one day be used in mining operations and perhaps aid in the construction of another Panama Canal. Needless to say, it never came about. Instead, the military applications of atomic destruction increased. Atomic tests off of the Bikini Atoll and several other sites were common up until the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was introduced. Photos of nuclear test sites here in the United States can be obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. ============================================================================ Breakdown of the Atomic Bombs Blast Zones - . . . . . . . . 5 4 5 . . . . . . . . . . 3 _ 3 . . . 2 . . . _._ . . .~ ~. . . . 4 . .2. 1 .2. . 4 . . . . . . . ~-.-~ . . . 2 . . . 3 3 . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ 5 . 4 . 5 . . . . . . ============================================================================ Diagram Outline 1 Vaporization Point Everything is vaporized by the atomic blast. 98% fatalities. Overpress=25 psi. Wind velocity=320 mph. Krik Krak Essay A simple piece of very thin magnetized metal can be used as an air pressure detonator. All that is needed is for the strip of metal to have a bubble of extremely thin metal forged in the center and have it placed directly underneath the electrical contact which will trigger the conventional explosive detonation. Before setting the strip in place, push the bubble in so that it will be inverted. Once the air pressure has achieved the desired level, the magnetic bubble will snap back into its original position and strike the contact, thus completing the circuit and setting off the explosive(s). Detonating Head The detonating head (or heads, depending on whether a Uranium or Plutonium bomb is being used as a model) that is seated in the conventional explosive charge(s) is similar to the standard-issue blasting cap. It merely serves as a catalyst to bring about a greater explosion. Calibration of this device is essential. Too small of a detonating head will only cause a colossal dud that will be doubly dangerous since someones got to disarm and re-fit the bomb with another detonating head. (an added measure of discomfort comes from the knowledge that the conventional explosive may have detonated with insufficient force to weld the radioactive metals. This will cause a supercritical mass that could go off at any time.) The detonating head will receive an electric charge from the either the air pressure detonator or the radar altimeters coordinating detonator, depending on what type of system is used. The Du Pont company makes rather excellent blasting caps that can be easily modified to suit the required specifications. Conventional Explosive Charge(s) This explosive is used to introduce (and weld) the lesser amount of Uranium to the greater amount within the bombs housing. The amount of pressure needed to bring this about is unknown and possibly classified by the United States Government for reasons of National Security Plastic explosives work best in this situation since they can be manipulated to enable both a Uranium bomb and a Plutonium bomb to detonate. One very good explosive is Urea Nitrate. The directions on how to make Urea Nitrate are as follows: Ingredients 1 1 cup concentrated solution of uric acid (C5 H4 N4 O3) 2 1/3 cup of nitric acid 3 4 heat-resistant glass containers 4 4 filters (coffee filters will do) Filter the concentrated solution of uric acid through a filter to remove impurities. Slowly add 1/3 cup of nitric acid to the solution and let the mixture stand for 1 hour. Filter again as before. This time the Urea Nitrate crystals will collect on the filter. Wash the crystals by pouring water over them while they are in the filter. Remove the crystals from the filter and allow 16 hours for them to dry. This explosive will need a blasting cap to detonate. It may be necessary to make a quantity larger than the aforementioned list calls for to bring about an explosion great enough to cause the Uranium (or Plutonium) sections to weld together on impact. Neutron Deflector The neutron deflector is comprised solely of Uranium-238. Not only is U-238 non-fissionable, it also has the unique ability to reflect neutrons back to their source. The U-238 neutron deflector can serve 2 purposes. In a Uranium bomb, the neutron deflector serves as a safeguard to keep an accidental supercritical mass from occurring by bouncing the stray neutrons from the `bullet counterpart of the Uranium mass away from the greater mass below it (and vice- versa). The neutron deflector in a Plutonium bomb actually helps the wedges of Plutonium retain their neutrons by `reflecting the stray particles back into the center of the assembly. See diagram in Section 4 of this file. Uranium Plutonium - Uranium-235 is very difficult to extract. In fact, for every 25,000 tons of Uranium ore that is mined from the earth, only 50 tons of Uranium metal can be refined from that, and 99.3% of that metal is U-238 which is too stable to be used as an active agent in an atomic detonation. To make matters even more complicated, no ordinary chemical extraction can separate the two isotopes since both U-235 and U-238 possess precisely identical chemical characteristics. The only methods that can effectively separate U-235 from U-238 are mechanical methods. U-235 is slightly, but only slightly, lighter than its counterpart, U-238. A system of gaseous diffusion is used to begin the separating process between the two isotopes. In this system, Uranium is combined with fluorine to form Uranium Hexafluoride gas. This mixture is then propelled by low- pressure pumps through a series of extremely fine porous barriers. Because the U-235 atoms are lighter and thus propelled faster than the U-238 atoms, they could penetrate the barriers more rapidly. As a result, the U-235s concentration became successively greater as it passed through each barrier. After passing through several thousand barriers, the Uranium Hexafluoride contains a relatively high concentration of U-235 2% pure Uranium in the case of reactor fuel, and if pushed further could (theoretically) yield up to 95% pure Uranium for use in an atomic bomb. Once the process of gaseous diffusion is finished, the Uranium must be refined once again. Magnetic separation of the extract from the previous enriching process is then implemented to further refine the Uranium. This involves electrically charging Uranium Tetrachloride gas and directing it past a weak electromagnet. Since the lighter U-235 particles in the gas stream are less affected by the magnetic pull, they can be gradually separated from the flow. Following the first two procedures, a third enrichment process is then applied to the extract from the second process. In this procedure, a gas centrifuge is brought into action to further separate the lighter U-235 from its heavier counter-isotope. Centrifugal force separates the two isotopes of Uranium by their mass. Once all of these procedures have been completed, all that need be done is to place the properly molded components of Uranium-235 inside a warhead that will facilitate an atomic detonation. Supercritical mass for Uranium-235 is defined as 110 lbs (50 kgs) of pure Uranium. Depending on the refining process(es) used when purifying the U-235 for use, along with the design of the warhead mechanism and the altitude at which it detonates, the explosive force of the A-bomb can range anywhere from 1 kiloton (which equals 1,000 tons of TNT) to 20 megatons (which equals 20 million tons of TNT which, by the way, is the smallest strategic nuclear warhead we possess today. {Point in fact One Trident Nuclear Submarine carries as much destructive power as 25 World War IIs}). While Uranium is an ideally fissionable material, it is not the only one. Plutonium can be used in an atomic bomb as well. By leaving U-238 inside an atomic reactor for an extended period of time, the U-238 picks up extra particles (neutrons especially) and gradually is transformed into the element Plutonium. Plutonium is fissionable, but not as easily fissionable as Uranium. While Uranium can be detonated by a simple 2-part gun-type device, Plutonium must be detonated by a more complex 32-part implosion chamber along with a stronger conventional explosive, a greater striking velocity and a simultaneous triggering mechanism for the conventional explosive packs. Along with all of these requirements comes the additional task of introducing a fine mixture of Beryllium and Polonium to this metal while all of these actions are occurring. Supercritical mass for Plutonium is defined as 35.2 lbs (16 kgs). This amount needed for a supercritical mass can be reduced to a smaller quantity of 22 lbs (10 kgs) by surrounding the Plutonium with a U-238 casing. To illustrate the vast difference between a Uranium gun-type detonator and a Plutonium implosion detonator, here is a quick rundown. ============================================================================ 1 Uranium Detonator Comprised of 2 parts. Larger mass is spherical and concave. Smaller mass is precisely the size and shape of the `missing section of the larger mass. Upon detonation of conventional explosive, the smaller mass is violently injected and welded to the larger mass. Supercritical mass is reached, chain reaction follows in one millionth of a second. 2 Plutonium Detonator - Comprised of 32 individual 45-degree pie-shaped sections of Plutonium surrounding a Beryllium/Polonium mixture. These 32 sections together form a sphere. All of these sections must have the precisely equal mass (and shape) of the others. The shape of the detonator resembles a soccerball. Upon detonation of conventional explosives, all 32 sections must merge with the B/P mixture within 1 ten-millionths of a second. ____________________________________________________________________________ Diagram - ____________________________________________________________________________ | Uranium Detonator | Plutonium Detonator ______________________________________|_____________________________________ _____ | | 😠 | . 2 . | 😠 | . ~ \_/ ~ . | 2:| | .. . . . | 😠 | 2| . |2 | .:| | . ~~~ . . . ~~~ . `:: | . . . . . _ ~~~ _ | . . ~ . . . `| |:.. | 2. . . . 1 . . . ./2 . | | `:::. | ./ . ~~~ . . | | `::: | . . : . . . | | :::: | . . . . . | 1 | ::|:: | . ___ . ___ . . `. . ,::||: | 2| . |2 ~~~ ::|||: | . _ `. .. 2 .::|||: | . / . :: ..::||||: | ~ -2- ~ :::::::::::::||||:: | ::::||||||||: | ::::: | | | | | 1 = Collision Point | 1 = Collision Point 2 Uranium Section(s) | 2 = Plutonium Section(s) | | ______________________________________|_____________________________________ ============================================================================ Lead Shield The lead shields only purpose is to prevent the inherent radioactivity of the bombs payload from interfering with the other mechanisms of the bomb. The neutron flux of the bombs payload is strong enough to short circuit the internal circuitry and cause an accidental or premature detonation. Fuses The fuses are implemented as another safeguard to prevent an accidental detonation of both the conventional explosives and the nuclear payload. These fuses are set near the surface of the `nose of the bomb so that they can be installed easily when the bomb is ready to be launched. The fuses should be installed only shortly before the bomb is launched. To affix them before it is time could result in an accident of catastrophic proportions.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

The Burning Fire Tree WIth Roses and Candy Essay Example For Students

The Burning Fire Tree WIth Roses and Candy Essay Thompson Arcella Jefferson- Newts first love Jefferson Cavanaugh- Judge of Cherokee Flats, employer of Sarah Winger Marcus Savage- Newts adversary Silas Newhall- Accused murderer of Jake Kiner Other Characters III. Setting Place: Cherokee Flats, Kansas Time: 1920s Description: A small Southern town with blazing summers and freezing winters IV. Plot This novel is about Newt Winger and his family during his years in Cherokee Flats. It tells about his (Newts) first love, first enemy, and his first encounters with death and racism. He even saves a white mans life, despitestrong and that some how it could be cured but nope, not a chance. We will write a custom essay on The Burning Fire Tree WIth Roses and Candy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now He learns that as he gets killed with the untrusting look in Charlies eyes. Unfortunately, before Charlie could get to John, John got to Andy, and Andy was killed. Charlie was dumbfounded. She couldnt believe that her father was dead. Out of all of those years that she and he had gone out and ran from the government, it was over; she no longerBibliography:I didnt use juice

Thursday, March 5, 2020

USS Arizona (BB-39) at Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona (BB-39) at Pearl Harbor USS Arizona (BB-39) Overview: Nation: United States Type: Battleship Shipyard: Brooklyn Navy Yard Laid Down: March 16, 1914 Launched: June 19, 1915 Commissioned: October 17, 1916 Fate: Sunk December 7, 1941 USS Arizona (BB-39) Specifications: Displacement: 31,400 tons Length: 608 ft. Beam: 106 ft. Draft: 30 ft. Propulsion: 4 propellers driven by Parson steam turbines Speed: 21 knots Range: 9,200 miles at 12 knots Complement: 1,385 men Armament (September 1940) Guns 12 Ãâ€" 14 in. (360 mm)/45 cal guns (4 triple turrets)12 Ãâ€" 5 in./51 cal. guns12 Ãâ€" 5 in./25 cal. anti-aircraft guns Aircraft 2 x aircraft USS Arizona (BB-39) - Design Construction: Approved by Congress on March 4, 1913, USS Arizona was designed as a super-dreadnought battleship. The second and final ship of the Pennsylvania-class, Arizona was laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on March 16, 1914. With World War I raging overseas, work continued on the ship and it was ready for launching the following June. Slipping down the ways on June 19, 1915, Arizona was sponsored by Miss Esther Ross of Prescott, AZ. Over the next year, work progressed as the ships new Parson turbine engines were installed and the rest of its machinery brought on board. An improvement on the earlier Nevada-class, the Pennsylvania-class featured a heavier main armament of twelve 14 guns mounted in four triple turrets as well as a slightly higher speed. The class also saw the US Navys abandonment of vertical triple expansion steam engines in favor of steam turbine technology. More economical, this propulsion system used less fuel oil than its predecessor. In addition, the Pennsylvanias introduced the four engine, four propeller layout that would become standard on all future American battleships. For protection, the two ships of the Pennsylvania-class possessed an advanced four-layer system of armor. This consisted of thin plating, air space, thin plate, oil space, thin plate, air space, followed with a thicker layer of armor nearly ten feet inboard. The theory behind this layout was that the air and oil space would aid in dissipating shell or torpedo explosions. In testing, this arrangement withstood an explosion of 300 lbs. of dynamite. Work on Arizona was completed in late 1916 and the ship was commissioned on October 17 with Captain John D. McDonald in command. USS Arizona (BB-39) - Operations During World War I: Departing New York the following month, Arizona conducted its shakedown cruise off the Virginia Capes and Newport, RI before proceeding south to Guantnamo Bay. Returning to the Chesapeake in December, it conducted torpedo and firing exercises in Tangier Sound. These complete, Arizona sailed for Brooklyn where post-shakedown alterations were made to the ship. With these issues addressed, the new battleship was assigned to Battleship Division 8 (BatDiv 8) at Norfolk. It arrived there on April 4, 1917, only days before the US entered World War I. During the war, Arizona, along with the other oil-fired battleships of the US Navy, remained assigned to the East Coast due to a shortage of fuel oil in Britain. Patrolling the waters between Norfolk and New York, Arizona also served as a gunnery training ship. With the wars conclusion on November 11, 1918, Arizona and BatDiv 8 sailed for Britain. Arriving on November 30, it sortied on December 12 to aid in escorting President Woodrow Wilson, aboard the liner George Washington, into Brest, France for the Paris Peace Conference. This done, it embarked American troops for the voyage home two days later. USS Arizona (BB-39) - The Interwar Years: Arriving off New York on Christmas Eve, Arizona led a naval review into the harbor the next day. After participating in maneuvers in the Caribbean during the spring of 1919, the battleship crossed the Atlantic and reached Brest on May 3. Sailing into the Mediterranean, it arrived off Smyrna (Izmir) on May 11 where it provided protection to American citizens during the Greek occupation of the port. Going ashore, Arizonas Marine detachment aided in guarding the American consulate. Returning to New York in late June, the ship underwent alterations at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. For much of the 1920s, Arizona served in a variety of peacetime roles and moved through assignments with BatDivs 7, 2, 3, and 4. Having been operating in the Pacific, the ship transited the Panama Canal on February 7, 1929 en route to Norfolk for modernization. Entering the yard, it was placed in reduced commission on July 15 as work began. As part of the modernization, Arizonas cage masts were placed with tripod masts topped by three-level fire control tops, alterations were made to its 5 in. guns, and additional armor was added. While in the yard, the ship also received new boilers and turbines. Returning to full commission on March 1, 1931, the ship embarked President Herbert Hoover on the 19th for a cruise to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Following this assignment, post-modernization trials were conducted off the coast of Maine. With this completed, it was assigned to BatDiv 3 at San Pedro, CA. For much of the next decade, the ship operated with the Battle Fleet in the Pacific. On September 17, 1938, it became the flagship of Rear Admiral Chester Nimitzs BatDiv 1. Nimitz remained on board until passing command to Rear Admiral Russell Willson the following year. USS Arizona (BB-39) - Pearl Harbor: Following Fleet Problem XXI in April 1940, the US Pacific Fleet was retained at Pearl Harbor due to increasing tensions with Japan. The ship operated around Hawaii until late summer when it sailed for Long Beach, CA en route to an overhaul at the Puget Sound Navy Yard. Among the work completed were improvements to Arizonas anti-aircraft battery. On January 23, 1941, Willson was relieved by Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd. Returning to Pearl Harbor, the battleship took part in a series of training exercises during 1941 before undergoing a brief overhaul in October. Arizona sailed for the final time on December 4 to take part in firing exercises. Returning the next day, it took the repair ship USS Vestal alongside on December 6. The next morning, the Japanese commenced their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor shortly before 8:00 AM. Sounding general quarters at 7:55, Kidd and Captain Franklin van Valkenburgh raced to the bridge. Shortly after 8:00, a bomb dropped by a Nakajima B5N Kate glanced off #4 turret starting a small fire. This was followed by another bomb hit at 8:06. Striking between and to the port of #1 and #2 turrets, this hit ignited a fire which detonated Arizonas forward magazine. This resulted in a massive explosion which destroyed the forward part of the ship and started fires which burned for two days. The explosion killed Kidd and van Valkenburgh, both of whom received the Medal of Honor for their actions. The ships damage control officer, Lieutenant Commander Samuel G. Fuqua, also was awarded the Medal of Honor for his role in fighting the fires and attempting to rescue survivors. As a result of the explosion, fires, and sinking, 1,177 of Arizonas 1,400-man crew were killed. As salvage work began after the attack, it was determined that the ship was a total loss. While the majority of its surviving guns were removed for future use, its superstructure was largely cut down to the waterline. A powerful symbol of the attack, the ships remains was bridged by the USS Arizona Memorial which was dedicated in 1962. The remains of Arizona, which still bleed oil, were designated a National Historic Landmark on May 5, 1989. Selected Sources Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships: USS ArizonaUniversity of Arizona: USS ArizonaNational Park Service: Valor in the Pacific

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Chapter 6 class activity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chapter 6 class activity - Essay Example The main stages in the stages of change model include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and termination. If I am in the stage of the precontemplation, more information on the risks associated with unhealthy behavior will help me move to the next stage. Additional information would open my eyes to the benefits of healthy behavior and risks of unhealthy behavior that I possess. In the contemplation stage, I would need to think deeply about the kind of a person I can become if I adopt healthy behavior. Therefore, relating with people practicing healthy behavior would help me reducing the disadvantages I associate with changing to healthy behavior. At the preparation stage, I need encouragement from trusted friends that I will succeed if I start the action stage. This will help me handle my biggest fears. In the action stage, I would need to learn how to substitute unhealthy behavior with healthy behavior. In the maintenance stage, I would need to learn how to deal with stress and avoid relapsing to unhealthy behavior (Hjemdahl, Rosengren & Steptoe